Prelude to the modern world thesis

prelude to the modern world thesis

Prelude, to, the, modern, world, thesis, free essays

54 soon after the Treaty of Berlin was signed, sultan Abdul Hamid ii (18761909) attempted to forestall the implementation of its reform provisions by asserting that Armenians did not make up a majority in the provinces and that their reports of abuses were largely exaggerated. In 1890, Abdul Hamid created a paramilitary outfit known as the hamidiye, which was mostly made up of Kurdish irregulars tasked to "deal with the Armenians as they wished". 46 :40 As Ottoman officials intentionally provoked rebellions (often as a result of over-taxation) in Armenian populated towns, such as in Sasun in 1894 and zeitun in 18951896, those regiments were increasingly used to deal with the Armenians by way of oppression and massacre. In some instances, Armenians successfully fought off the regiments and in 1895 brought the excesses to the attention of the Great Powers, who subsequently condemned the porte. 47 :40, the powers forced Abdul Hamid to sign a new reform package designed to curtail the powers of the hamidiye, but, like the berlin Treaty, it was never implemented. On, 2,000 Armenians assembled in Constantinople to petition for the implementation of the reforms, but Ottoman police units violently broke the rally. 46 :5758 soon, massacres of Armenians broke out in Constantinople and then engulfed the rest of the Armenian-populated provinces of Bitlis, diyarbekir, erzurum, harput, sivas, trabzon, and Van. Estimates differ on how many Armenians were killed, but European documentation of the pogroms, which became known as the hamidian massacres, placed the figures at between 100,000 and 300,000.

Prelude to the, modern, world, read the document: Prelude to the

Note 4 Patriarch Nerses sent a delegation led by his distinguished predecessor, Archbishop Khrimian hayrik, to speak for the Armenians, but it was not admitted into the sessions on the grounds that it did not represent a country. Confined to the periphery, the delegation did its best to contact the representatives of the powers and argue the case for Armenian administrative autonomy within the Ottoman Empire, review but to little effect. Following statement an understanding reached with Ottoman representatives, Britain drew up an emasculated version of Article 16 to replace the original, a clause that retained the call for reforms, but omitted any reference to the russian occupation, thereby dispensing with the principal guarantee of their implementation. Despite an ambiguous reference to Great Power supervision, the clause failed to offset the removal of the russian guarantee with any tangible equivalent, thus leaving the timing and fate of the reforms to the discretion of the sublime porte. 47 :3839 The clause was readily adopted as Article 61 of the Treaty of Berlin on the last day of the congress, to the deep disappointment of the Armenian delegation. Armenian national liberation movement main article: Armenian national liberation movement Prospects for reforms faded rapidly following the signing of the berlin treaty, as security conditions in the Armenian provinces went from bad to worse and abuses proliferated. Upset with this turn of events, a number of disillusioned Armenian intellectuals living in Europe and Russia decided to form political parties and societies dedicated to the betterment of their compatriots in the Ottoman Empire. In the last quarter of the 19th century, this movement came to be dominated by three parties: the Armenakan, whose influence was limited to van, the social Democrat Hunchakian Party, and the Armenian revolutionary federation (Dashnaktsutiun). Ideological differences aside, all the parties had the common goal of achieving better social conditions for the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire through self-defense 53 and advocating increased European pressure on the Ottoman government to implement the promised reforms. Hamidian massacres, main article: Hamidian massacres Corpses of massacred Armenians in Erzurum in 1895.

47 :35ff Under growing pressure, the for government of Sultan Abdul Hamid ii declared itself a constitutional monarchy with a parliament (which was almost immediately prorogued ) and entered into negotiations with the powers. At the same time, the Armenian patriarch of Constantinople, nerses ii, forwarded Armenian complaints of widespread "forced land seizure. Forced conversion of women and children, arson, protection extortion, rape, and murder" to the powers. 47 :37 The russo-turkish War of ended with Russia's decisive victory and its army in occupation of large parts of eastern Turkey, but not before entire Armenian districts had been devastated by massacres carried out with the connivance of Ottoman authorities. In the wake of these events, patriarch Nerses and his emissaries made repeated approaches to russian leaders to urge the inclusion of a clause granting local self-government to the Armenians in the forthcoming Treaty of San Stefano, which was signed on The russians were receptive. In its place, the two sides agreed on a clause making the sublime porte 's implementation of reforms in the Armenian provinces a condition of Russia's withdrawal, thus designating Russia the guarantor of the reforms. 51 The clause entered the treaty as Article 16 and marked the first appearance of what came to be known in European diplomacy as the Armenian question. On receiving a copy of the treaty, britain promptly objected to it and particularly Article 16, which it saw as ceding too much influence to russia. It immediately pushed for a congress of the great powers to be convened to discuss and revise the treaty, leading to the congress of Berlin in JuneJuly 1878.

prelude to the modern world thesis

Revolution: How the reformation Shaped the, modern, world

From 1839 to business the declaration of a constitution in 1876, the Ottoman government instituted the tanzimat, a series of reforms designed to improve the status of minorities. Nevertheless, most of the reforms were never implemented because the empire's Muslim population rejected the principle of equality for Christians. By the late 1870s, the Greeks, along with several other Christian nations in the balkans, frustrated with their conditions, had, often with the help of the Entente powers, broken free of Ottoman rule. 48 :192 49 The Armenians remained, by and large, passive during these years, earning them the title of millet-i sadika or the "loyal millet". 50 In the mid-1860s and early 1870s this passivity gave way to new currents of thinking in Armenian society. Led by intellectuals educated at European universities or American missionary schools in Turkey, armenians began to question their second-class status and press for better treatment from their government. In one such instance, after amassing the signatures of peasants from Western Armenia, the Armenian Communal council petitioned the Ottoman government to redress their principal grievances: "the looting and murder in Armenian towns by muslim Kurds and Circassians, improprieties during tax collection, criminal behavior. The Ottoman government considered these grievances and promised to punish those responsible, but no meaningful steps to do so were ever taken. 47 :36 Following the violent suppression of Christians during the Great Eastern Crisis, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, bulgaria and Serbia, the United Kingdom book and France invoked the 1856 Treaty of Paris by claiming that it gave them the right to intervene and protect the.

Testimony against Muslims by Christians and Jews was inadmissible in courts of law wherein a muslim could be punished; this meant that their testimony could only be considered in commercial cases. They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride atop horses and camels. Their houses could not overlook those of Muslims; and their religious practices were severely circumscribed,. G., the ringing of church bells was strictly forbidden. 45 s1880s main article: Armenian question German ethnographic map of Asia minor and caucasus in 1914. Armenians are labeled in blue. In the mid-19th century, the three major European powers, Great Britain, France and Russia, began to question the Ottoman Empire's treatment of its Christian minorities and pressure it to grant equal rights to all its subjects.

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prelude to the modern world thesis

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Armenians were mainly concentrated in the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire, although large communities were also found in the western provinces, as well as in the capital, constantinople. The Armenian community was made up of three religious denominations: Armenian Catholic, armenian Protestant, and Armenian Apostolic, the Church of the vast majority of Armenians. Under the millet system, the Armenian community was allowed to rule itself under its own system of governance with fairly little interference from the Ottoman government. Most Armenians—approximately 70—lived in poor and dangerous conditions in the rural countryside, with the exception of the wealthy, constantinople-based Amira class, a social japanese elite whose members included the duzians (Directors of the Imperial Mint the balyans (Chief Imperial Architects) and the dadians (Superintendent of the. 42 43 Ottoman census figures clash with the statistics collected by the Armenian Patriarchate, but according to the latter, there were almost three million Armenians living in the empire in 1878 (400,000 in Constantinople and the balkans, 600,000 in Asia minor and Cilicia, 670,000.

44 In the eastern provinces, the Armenians were subject to the whims of their Turkish and Kurdish neighbors, who would regularly overtax them, subject them to brigandage and kidnapping, force them to convert to Islam, and otherwise exploit them without interference from central or local. 43 In the Ottoman Empire, in accordance with the dhimmi system implemented in Muslim countries, they, like all other Christians and also jews, were accorded certain freedoms. The dhimmi system in the Ottoman Empire was largely based upon the pact of Umar. The client status established the rights of the non-Muslims to property, livelihood and freedom of worship, but they were in essence treated as second-class citizens in the empire and referred to in Turkish as gavours, a pejorative word meaning " pearl infidel " or "unbeliever". The clause of the pact of Umar which prohibited non-Muslims from building new places of worship was historically imposed on some communities of the Ottoman Empire and ignored in other cases, at the discretion of local authorities. Although there were no laws mandating religious ghettos, this led to non-Muslim communities being clustered around existing houses of worship. 45 46 In addition to other legal limitations, Christians were not considered equals to muslims and several prohibitions were placed on them.

35 Audio recording of Section 3 of Martyred Armenia, by fa'iz el-Ghusein Bat ye'or has suggested that "the genocide of the Armenians was a jihad ". 36 ye'or holds jihad and what she calls " dhimmitude " to be among the "principles and values" that led to the Armenian Genocide. 37 This perspective is challenged by fà'iz el-Ghusein, a bedouin Arab witness of the Armenian persecution, whose 1918 treatise aimed "to refute beforehand inventions and slanders against the faith of Islam and against Moslems generally. What the Armenians have suffered is to be attributed to the committee of Union and Progress. It has been due to their nationalist fanaticism and their jealousy of the Armenians, and to these alone; the faith of Islam is guiltless of their deeds".


38 :49 Arnold toynbee writes that "the young Turks made pan-Islamism and Turkish Nationalism work together for their ends, but the development of their policy shows the Islamic element receding and the nationalist gaining ground". 39 toynbee and various other sources report that many Armenians were spared death by marrying into turkish families or converting to Islam. Concerned that Westerners would come to regard the "extermination of the Armenians" as "a black stain on the history of Islam, which the ages will not efface el-Ghusein also observes that many Armenian converts were put to death. 38 :39 In one instance, when an Islamic leader appealed to spare Armenian converts to Islam, El-Ghusein"s a government official as responding that "politics have no religion before sending the converts to their deaths. 38 :49 Background main articles: Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and Ottoman Armenian population Armenians under Ottoman rule The western portion of historical Armenia, known as Western Armenia, had come under Ottoman jurisdiction by the peace of Amasya (1555) and was permanently divided from Eastern. 40 Thereafter, the region was alternatively referred to as "Turkish" or "Ottoman" Armenia. 41 The vast majority of Armenians were grouped together into a semi-autonomous community, the Armenian millet, which was led by one of the spiritual heads of the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople.

Prelude to the, modern, era

28 American President Barack Obama 's use of the term Medz yeghern when referring to the Armenian Genocide has been described "as a means of avoiding the word genocide". 29 several international organizations have conducted studies of the atrocities, each in turn determining that the term "genocide" aptly describes "the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 191516". 30 Among the organizations affirming this conclusion are the International Center for Transitional Justice, 30 the International Association of Genocide Scholars, 31 and the United Nations' sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. 32 In 2005, the International Association of Genocide Scholars affirmed that scholarly evidence revealed the "Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens an unarmed Christian minority population. 33 More than a million Armenians were exterminated through direct killing, starvation, torture, and forced death marches". The iags also condemned Turkish attempts to deny the factual and moral reality of the Armenian Genocide. In 2007, the Elie wiesel foundation for Humanity produced a letter 34 signed by 53 Nobel laureates re-affirming the genocide Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of Armenians constituted genocide.

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prelude to the modern world thesis

: the origin of the word "genocide (cbs news) The Armenian Genocide happened before the coining of the term genocide. English-language words and phrases used by contemporary accounts to characterise the event include "massacres "atrocities "annihilation "holocaust "the murder of a nation "race extermination" and "a crime against humanity". 22 Raphael Lemkin coined "genocide" in 1943, with the fate of the Armenians in mind; he later explained that: "it happened so many times. It happened to the Armenians, then after the Armenians Hitler took action." 23 The survivors of the genocide used a number of Armenian terms to name the event. Mouradian writes that Yeghern (Crime/Catastrophe or variants like medz yeghern (Great Crime) and Abrilian Yeghern (the April Crime) were the terms most commonly used. 24 The name Aghed, usually translated as "Catastrophe was, according to beledian, the term most often used in Armenian literature to name the event. 25 After the coining of the term genocide, the portmanteau word Armenocide was also used as a name for the Armenian Genocide. 26 Works that seek to deny the Armenian Genocide often attach qualifying words against the term genocide, such as "so-called "alleged" or "disputed or characterise it as a "controversy or dismiss it as "Armenian allegations "Armenian claims" 27 or "Armenian lies or employ euphemisms.

Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre. 12, other ethnic groups were similarly targeted for extermination in the. Assyrian genocide and the, greek genocide, and their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy. 1 2, most, armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide. 13, raphael Lemkin was moved specifically by the annihilation of the Armenians to define systematic legs and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and coin the word genocide in 1943. 14 The Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the holocaust. 18 Turkey denies the word genocide is an accurate term for these crimes.

Ancient, world 5000

The, armenian Genocide armenian :, note 3, hayots tseghaspanutyun also known as the, armenian Holocaust, 9 was the. Ottoman government 's systematic extermination.5 million. Armenians, note 2 mostly citizens within the, ottoman Empire. 10 11, the starting date is conventionally held to be, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported from. Constantinople (now Istanbul) to the region. Ankara 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of plan whom were eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after. World War i and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading to the, syrian Desert.


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