years after Arrian's visit, another eyewitness scholar visited India named Abū rayān al-Bīrūnī, also known as Al-Biruni, or Alberonius in Latin. Al-Biruni was an Islamic era persian scholar who went and lived in India for 16 years from 1017. He translated many Indian texts into Arabic, as well as wrote a memoir on Indian culture and life he observed. Al-Biruni claimed, The implements of the wedding rejoicings are brought forward. No gift (dower or dowry) is settled between them. The man gives only a present to the wife, as he thinks fit, and a marriage gift in advance, which he has no right to claim back, but the (proposed) wife may give it back to him of her own will (if she does not. Al-Biruni, chapter on Matrimony in India, about 1035 ad 44 Al-Biruni further claims that a daughter, in 11th century India, had legal right to inherit from her father, but only a fourth part of her brother. The daughter took this inheritance amount with her when she married, claimed Al-Biruni, and she had no rights to income from her parents after her marriage or to any additional inheritance after her father's death.
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Property rights for women increased in ancient India, suggest MacDonell and keith, over the Epics era (200 bc 700 AD). 39 Kane claims ancient literature suggests bridewealth was paid only in the asura-type of marriage that was considered reprehensible and forbidden by manu and other ancient Indian scribes. Lochtefeld suggests that religious duties listed by manu and others, such as 'the bride be richly adorned to celebrate marriage' were ceremonial dress and jewelry along with gifts that were her property, not property demanded by or meant for the groom; Lochtefeld further notes that. 40 The above analysis by various scholars is based on interpreting verses of ancient Sanskrit fiction and inconsistent smritis from India, not eyewitness accounts. Available eyewitness observations from ancient India give a different picture. One of these are the eyewitness records from Alexander the Great 's conquest (. 300 bc as recorded by Arrian and Megasthenes. Arrian first book mentions a lack of dowry, they (these ancient Indian people) make their marriages accordance with this principle, for in selecting pay a bride they care nothing whether she has a dowry and a handsome fortune, but look only to her beauty and other. Arrian, the Invasion of India by Alexander the Great, 3rd Century bc 41 Arrian's second phd book similarly notes, They (Indians) marry without either giving or taking dowries, but the women as soon as they are marriageable are brought forward by their fathers in public,. Arrian, Indika in Megasthenes and Arrian, 3rd Century bc 42 The two sources suggest dowry was absent, or infrequent enough to be noticed by Arrian.
34 35 Stanley. Tambiah claims the ancient Code of Manu sanctioned dowry and bridewealth in plan ancient India (typically in Rohtak) and specially in Kadian family, but dowry was the more prestigious form and associated with the Brahmanic (priestly) caste. Bridewealth was restricted to the lower castes, who were not allowed to give dowry. He cites two studies from the early 20th century with data to suggest that this pattern of dowry in upper castes and bridewealth in lower castes has persisted through the first half of the 20th century. 36 However, it is more likely that marriages involved both reciprocal gifts between the two families, claims Tambiah, so that insofar as the groom's family gives the bridewealth, it tends to be given back as the culturally validated dowry to the bride as part. 37 Michael Witzel, in contrast, claims the ancient Indian literature suggests dowry practices were not significant during the vedic period. 38 Witzel also notes that women in ancient India had property inheritance rights either by appointment or when they had no brothers. The findings of MacDonell and keith are similar to witzel, and differ from Tambiah; they cite ancient Indian literature suggesting bridewealth was paid even in brahma- and daiva-types of marriage associated with the Brahmanic (priestly) upper caste. Dowry was not infrequent, when the girl suffered from some bodily defect.
All other dos is adventitia. Roman law also allowed for a species of dowry, called dos receptitia, which was given by some other person than the father or father's father of the bride, in consideration of marriage, but on the condition that it should be restored back to the dowry. The bride's family were expected to give a dowry when london a girl married, and in proportion to their means. 32 It was customary for the bride's family and friends to pay promised dowries in installments over three years, and some romans won great praise by delivering the dowry in one lump sum. 33 India edit The practice of dowry in south Asia is a controversial subject. Some scholars believe dowry was practiced in antiquity, but some do not. Historical eyewitness reports, (discussed below suggest dowry in ancient India was insignificant, and daughters had inheritance rights, which by custom were exercised at the time of her marriage. Documentary evidence reviews suggests that at the beginning of 20th century bride price, rather than dowry was the common custom, which often resulted in poor boys remaining unmarried.
Dowry was a very common institution in Roman times, 30 and it began out of a desire to get the brides family to contribute a share of the costs involved in setting up a new household. 31 Dos was given for the purpose of enabling the husband to sustain the charges of the marriage state (onera matrimonii). All the property of the wife which was not dowry, or was not a donatio propter nuptias, continued to be her own property, and was called Parapherna. 28 The dowry could include any form of property, given or promised at the time of marriage, but only what remained after deducting the debts. Not only the bride's family, any person could donate his property as dowry for the woman. Two types of dowry were known— dos profectitia and dos adventitia. 29 That dos is profectitia which was given by the father or father's father of the bride.
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If she had sons, they would share it equally. Her dowry being inheritable only by her own children, not by her husband's children by other women. 21 Ancient Greece edit In archaic Greece, the usual practice was to give a bride price ( hédnon ( δνον ). Dowries ( pherné ( φερνή ) were exchanged by the later classical period (5th century. A husband had certain property rights in his wife's dowry.
In addition, the wife might bring to the marriage property of her own, which was not included in the dowry and which was, as a result, hers alone. This property was "beyond the dowry" (Greek parapherna, the root of paraphernalia ) and is referred to as paraphernal online property or extra-dotal property. A dowry may also have served as a form of protection for the wife against the possibility of ill treatment by her husband and his family, 25 providing an incentive for the husband not to harm his wife. This would apply in cultures where a dowry was expected to be returned to the bride's family if she died soon after marrying. In contemporary Greece, dowry was removed from family law through legal reforms in 1983. 26 27 Roman Empire edit The romans practiced dowry ( dos ). 28 29 The dowry was property transferred by the bride, or on her behalf by anyone else, to the groom or groom's father, at their marriage.
Bridewealth circulates property and women, and is typical of societies where property is limited. Dowry concentrates property and is found in property owning classes or commercial or landed pastoral peoples. When families give dowry, they not only ensure their daughter's economic security, they also "buy" the best possible husband for her, and son-in-law for themselves. 20 Historical practices edit babylon edit even in the oldest available records, such as the code of Hammurabi in ancient Babylon, the dowry is described as an already-existing custom. Daughters did not normally inherit anything from their father's estate. Instead, with marriage, they got a dowry from her parents, which was intended to offer as much lifetime security to the bride as her family could afford.
21 22 In Babylonia, both bride price and dowry were practiced. However, bride price almost always became part of the dowry. 21 In case of divorce without reason, a man was required to give his wife the dowry she brought as well as the bride price the husband gave. The return of dowry could be disputed, if the divorce was for a reason allowed under Babylonian law. 23 24 A wife's dowry was administered by her husband as part of the family assets. He had no say, however, in its ultimate disposal; and legally, the dowry had to be kept separate for it was expected to support the wife and her children. The wife was entitled to her dowry at her husband's death. If she died childless, her dowry reverted to her family, that is her father if he was alive, otherwise her brothers.
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Sylvia yanagisko argues, for example, that there are a number of societies including parts of Japan, southern Italy, and China, that do not support goody's claim that dowry is a form of female inheritance of male property. She notes that goody's is an evolutionary model in which these historical variables may not be the decisive factors today. 16 Susan Mann argues, in contrast, with examples where even in late Imperial China, dowry was a form of female inheritance. Tambiah (Goody's co-author on the earlier "Bridewealth and Dowry" 18 ) later argued that goody's overall thesis remained pertinent in North India, although it required modification to meet local circumstances. He points out that dowry in North India is only partially used as a bride's conjugal fund, and that a large part goes directly to the groom's joint family. This would initially seem to discount goody's model, except that in North India, the joint family is composed of the groom's parents, for his married brothers and unmarried sisters, and their third generation children. This joint family controlled this part of the dowry, which they used to help fund their own daughter/sister's dowries. But when the parents die, and the joint family partitions, this jointly held wealth was then divided among the married sons, such that ultimately, the bride's dowry given to the joint family returned to her and her husband as their "conjugal fund." 19 Schlegel and. They argue that a major factor in determining the type of marriage transaction is the type of property controlled by the household.
In sparsely populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place, most of the work is done by women. These are the societies that give brideprice. Boserup further associates shifting horticulture with the practice of polygamy, and hence bridewealth is paid as a compensation to her family for the loss of her labour. In plough agriculture farming is largely men's work; this is where dowry is given. 14 In contrast, plough agriculture is associated with private property and marriage tends to be monogamous, to keep the property within writing the nuclear family. Close family are the preferred marriage partners so as to keep property within the group. 15 There is a scholarly debate on goody's theory.
Turkish, dot in French daijo" in Nepali, 7 and in various parts of Africa as serotwana, 8 idana, saduquat, or mugtaf. 9 10 11 Origins edit aussteuerschrank a dowry cabinet, currently in a german museum. Anthropologist Jack goody 's comparative study of dowry systems around the world utilizing the Ethnographic Atlas demonstrated that dowry is a form of inheritance found in the broad swath of Eurasian societies from Japan to Ireland that practice "diverging devolution. E., that transmit property to children of both sexes. This practice differs from the majority of Sub-Saharan African societies that practice "homogenous inheritance" in which property is transmitted only to children of the same sex as the property holder. These latter African societies are characterized by the transmission of the " bride price the money, goods or property given by the groom or his family to the parents of the bride (not the bride herself). 12 goody has demonstrated a historical correlation between the practices of "diverging devolution" (dowry) and the development of intensive plough agriculture on the one hand, and homogeneous inheritance (brideprice) and extensive hoe agriculture on the other. 13 Drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, goody notes that the sexual division of labour varies in intensive plough agriculture and extensive shifting horticulture.
3 4 5, the custom of dowry is most common in cultures that are strongly patrilineal and that expect women to reside with or near their husband's family ( patrilocality ). 6, dowries have a long history in Europe, south Asia, africa and other parts of the world. 6, contents, definition edit. A dowry is the transfer of parental property to a daughter at her marriage (i.e. 'inter vivos rather than at the owner's death ( mortis causa ). 1, a dowry establishes a type of conjugal fund, the nature of which may vary widely. This fund may provide an element of financial diary security in widowhood or against a negligent husband, and may eventually go to provide for her children.
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A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter. 1, dowry contrasts with the related concepts of bride price and dower. While bride price or bride service is a payment by the groom or his family to the bride's parents, dowry is the wealth transferred from the bride's family to the groom or his family, ostensibly for the bride. Similarly, dower is the property settled on the bride herself, by the groom at the time of marriage, and which remains under her ownership and control. 2, dowry is an ancient custom, and its existence may well write predate records. Dowries continue to be expected, and demanded as a condition to accept a marriage proposal, in some parts of the world, mainly in parts. Asia, northern Africa and the, balkans. In some parts of the world, disputes related to dowry sometimes result in acts of violence against women, including killings and acid attacks.