Essay on diseases

essay on diseases

Infectious diseases Essay - 672 Words bartleby

Near Breslau there lived a well-known nobleman." Another changeling tale begins with the sentence: "A reliable citizen of leipzig told the following story." footnote 8 The Grimms do not identify their "reliable citizen of leipzig but they do identify another of their sources, a man. The influential church reformer was not only an avid storyteller, but - as his own writings demonstrate - he was also a true believer in changelings. Luther was very much a product of his own times with respect to superstitious beliefs and practices. He sincerely believed that Satan was responsible for the malformed children known as changelings, and that such satanic child exchanges occurred frequently. Footnote 9 In Luther's theological view, a changeling was a child of the devil without a human soul, "only a piece of flesh." This view made it easy to justify almost any abuse of an unfortunate child thought to be a changeling, including the ultimate. Luther himself had no reservations about putting such children to death.

An Essay on Disease: Its cause and Prevention - ncbi - nih

Evans-Wentz, himself a true believer in the reality of fairy life, published an extensive study, the fairy-faith in Celtic countries, which contains numerous accounts of exchanged children. This book, with a new introduction praising the author for his courageous acceptance of "a greater reality beyond the everyday world was reissued in 1966. As late as 1924 it was reported that in sections of rural Germany many people were still taking traditional precautions against the demonic exchange of infants. Footnote 5 Finally, writing in 1980, hasan. El-Shamy reports: "The belief that the jinn may steal a human infant and put their own infant in its place is widespread in numerous parts of Egypt." footnote 6 views held firmly for a thousand years do not die brand easily, especially when they appear. In keeping with their higher level of popular credibility, changeling accounts are much more often classified as legends than as fairy tales by folktale scholars. The Grimms themselves delineate between these two principal folktale genres in terms that twentieth-century folklorists still find meaningful: "The fairy tale is more poetic, the legend is more historical. While it is the children alone who believe in the reality of fairy tales, the folk have not yet stopped believing in their legends." footnote 7 Legends, they conclude, are less fantastic and more firmly rooted in reality than fairy tales. Storytellers use a variety of literary devices to emphasize the familiarity and credibility of their changeling accounts. In contrast to fairy tales, which nearly always take place at an indefinite "once upon a time" and in an unnamed place, changeling legends frequently are set in a precisely identified time and location. The opening of "Beating the Changeling with Switches" is typical in this regard: "The following true story took place in 1580.

Footnote 2 we all want explanations for happenings that fall outside of our control, especially those that have a direct bearing on our welfare. It is only natural that our forebears wanted to know why some children fail to develop normally, and what our responsibilities are toward these book handicapped individuals. The two stories"d above are part of a vast network of legends and superstitions that give primitive but satisfying answers to these questions. These accounts - which, unlike most fantasy tales, were actually widely believed - suggest that a physically or mentally abnormal child is very likely not the human parents' offspring at all, but rather a changeling - a creature begotten by some supernatural being and then. Footnote 3 From pre-Christian until recent times, many people have sincerely and actively believed that supernatural beings can and do exchange their own inferior offspring for human children, making such trades either in order to breed new strength and vitality into their own diminutive races. These beliefs continued to exert influence well into the nineteenth century, and in some areas even later. Writing in England in 1890, the pioneer folklorist Edwin Sidney hartland could state: "In dealing with these stories about changelings we must always remember that not merely are we concerned with sagas of something long past, but with a yet living superstition." footnote.

essay on diseases

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She told her story to the nobleman. He said barbing to her: "Woman, if you think that this is not your child, then do this one thing. Take it out to the meadow where you left your previous paper child and beat it hard with a switch. Then you will witness a miracle." The woman followed the nobleman's advice. She went out and beat the child with a switch until it screamed loudly. Then the devil brought back her stolen child, saying: "There, you have it!" And with that he took his own child away. This story is often told and is known by both the young and the old in and around Breslau.

When he laughed, a band of little elves suddenly appeared. They brought the rightful child, set it on the hearth, and took the changeling away. Footnote, the following true story took place in the year 1580. Near Breslau there lived a distinguished nobleman who had a large crop of hay every summer which his subjects were required harvest for him. One year there was a new mother among his harvest workers, a woman who had barely had a week to recover from the birth of her child. When she saw that she could not refuse the nobleman's decree, she took her child with her, placed it on a small clump of grass, and left it alone while she helped with the haymaking. After she had worked a good while, she returned to her child to nurse. She looked at it, screamed aloud, hit her hands together above her head, and cried out in despair, that this was not her child: It sucked the milk from her so greedily and howled in such an inhuman manner that it was nothing like the. As is usual in such cases, she kept the child for several days, but it was so ill-behaved that the good woman nearly collapsed.

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essay on diseases

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Ashliman, copyright 1997 Return to: Contents, the legends, a living superstition. The legend genre, martin Luther on changelings, shared responsibility. Justifying infanticide, brewing in eggshells, other protective measures, working mothers. Gender bias, organized religion, the stolen child's perspective, selma lagerlöf. Conclusion, footnotes, additional notes and links, a mother had her child taken from the cradle by elves. In its place they laid a changeling with a thick head and staring eyes who would do nothing but eat and drink.

In distress she went to a neighbor and asked for advice. The neighbor told her to carry the changeling into the kitchen, set it on the hearth, make a fire, and boil water in two eggshells. That should make the changeling laugh, and if he laughs it will be all over with him. The woman did everything just as her neighbor said. When she placed the eggshells filled the with water over the fire, the blockhead said: Now i am as old. As the wester wood, but have never seen anyone cooking in shells! And he began laughing about.

If the problem is a stone in the lower bile duct, the gastroenterologist can often put a basket into the tube and snare the stone and remove. If the problem is tumor, the endoscopist can insert a biopsy device and remove a small piece of tissue for review by the pathologist. Finally, the endoscopist can help open the connection between the common bile duct and the duodenum by cutting the muscle that encircles the valve (sphincterotomy)—allowing stones that would have been trapped at the junction to flow right on through. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mri scan). Magnetic resonance imaging has spawned the new field of mri cholangiography.


With or without contrast material, mri is able to show the bile in the bile ducts from many different angles. Some believe that mri is about as good a modality for detecting stones in the bile ducts as there is, excluding the much more interventional transhepatic cholangiogram. Problems with mri include limited availability in certain areas, limited cholangiographic skills and experience, and relatively high costs. Imaging Summary, if gallbladder stones are suspected, and ultrasound is usually performed. If more complicated issues concerning the gallbladder or bile ducts are suspected, a ct scan, an mri scan, or both may be performed. A radionuclide biliary scan also may provide useful information. Interventional tests, such as ercp or thc are performed for complicated and serious conditions. Changelings: An Essay. Ashliman An Essay.

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Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreaticogram (ercp endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticogram (ercp) is often performed by gastroenterologists book or surgeons, and not by radiologists. This test involves putting a tube into the patient's mouth, down the throat, into the stomach, through the duodenum and then, into the common bile duct. Ercp is performed with the patient sedated. Looking through the tube, the gastroenterologist is able to locate the hole in the duodenum where the bile comes in from the common bile duct. A smaller tube or catheter is passed through this hole and contrast material is injected. The contrast agent (dye) also can be injected into the pancreatic duct, showing that ductal system as well. The thick endoscopic tube affords visualization and other things as well.

essay on diseases

If it gets stuck and is not seen in the gi tract, it can be assumed that the main duct is blocked. In maker most cases, ct scan is not used to detect gallstones, but this imaging test does have its uses in the biliary system. First of all, the entire main duct can be seen using ct scan because unlike ultrasound, air in the gi tract does not interfere with. High-speed ct with computer-assisted reformatting capabilities allows the radiologist to move quickly through numerous images. The ability of ct to find stones in the common bile duct approximates ultrasound. In general, ct scan is a better test for more complicated problems, although it may be used together with ultrasound. Transhepatic Cholangiogram (thc this interventional procedure involves placing a small needle into the liver and injecting dye into the bile ducts. Thc is a very good test for evaluating the bile duct, but this test has definite risks. The improvements in ultrasound and ct imaging, as well as the emergence of mri, were important factors in reducing the number of routine transhepatic cholangiograms.

lower part is close to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and air produced in the gi tract deflects the sound waves. If ultrasound cannot detect the condition, other tests that can add valuable information. Radionuclide biliary Scan, this nuclear medicine test is not only an imaging test, but a function test as well. The patient is given an injection of a radioactive tracer and then imaging is done under a camera for up to several hours, but usually for no more than 30 to 45 minutes. From this test, the radiologist can determine if the isotope is picked up and excreted by the liver and can often tell if the cystic duct is blocked because, if it is, the gallbladder does not receive any radioactive material. The radiologist can also see whether or not the common bile duct is blocked. Ordinarily, the tracer should pass right through this duct and end up in the gi tract within a short period of time.

The oral test was able to detect problems in the gallbladder, but was not able to detect problems in other parts of the bile summary system, such as the main bile duct. To detect other problems, intravenous cholangiogram (IVC) was used. This test involved the injection of a contrast agent, which caused side effects, such as nausea and rare life-threatening reactions. Ivc involved special x-rays called tomograms that provided good images of the main bile ducts, enabling the radiologist to detect gallstones. In some cases, however, the images were inadequate due to technical problems, poor uptake of the dye by the liver, and other issues. Ultrasound, in most cases, ultrasound is the first imaging test for gallbladder and bile duct abnormalities. This test is non-invasive, uses no dyes, and is not painful.

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Diagnosis of Gallbladder Disease, abdominal x-rays are not used to diagnose gallbladder disease. Only about 20 percent of gallstones are dense enough to be seen on x-raymost blend in with the soft tissue structures of the abdomen. Before the advent of ultrasound, the imaging test most used to visualize the gallbladder was the oral cholecystogram. In this test, an oral contrast agent (dye) was given to the patient the night before the test and would be flushed from the body through the gallbladder and bile ducts. When the agent appeared in the gallbladder, the radiologist used fluoroscopic equipment to look for stones. Lighter gallstones would be present within the gallbladder fluid. If the dye concentrated in the gallbladder, it indicated that the organ was functioning to some extent. Conversely, if the dye didn't appear in the gallbladder, the gallbladder was not functioning properly and perhaps should be removed.


Essay on diseases
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