84 Although the Arab revolt of 1916 to 1918 failed in its objective, the Allied victory in World War I resulted in the end of Ottoman suzerainty and control in Arabia. 85 Ibn saud avoided involvement in the Arab revolt, and instead continued his struggle with the Al Rashid. Following the latter's final defeat, he took the title sultan of Nejd in 1921. With the help of the ikhwan, the hejaz was conquered in 192425 and on, ibn saud declared himself King of the hejaz. 86 a year later, he added the title of King of Nejd. For the next five years, he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units. 59 After the conquest of the hejaz, the ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories.
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77 The first "Saudi state" established in 1744 in the tabs area around riyadh, rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of saudi Arabia, 78 sacking Karbala in 1802 and capturing Mecca in 1803, but was destroyed by 1818 by the Ottoman viceroy. 79 A much smaller second "Saudi state located mainly in Nejd, was established in 1824. Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al saud contested control of the interior of what was to become saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family, the Al Rashid. By 1891, the Al Rashid were victorious and the Al saud were driven into exile in Kuwait. 59 Abdul aziz ibn saud, the first king yellow of saudi Arabia at the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have a suzerainty over most of the peninsula. Subject to this suzerainty, arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers, 80 81 with the Sharif of Mecca having pre-eminence and ruling the hejaz. 82 In 1902, Abdul Rahman's son, Abdul aziz—later to be known as Ibn saud —recaptured control of riyadh bringing the Al saud back to nejd. 59 Ibn saud gained the support of the ikhwan, a tribal army inspired by wahhabism and led by faisal Al-Dawish, and which had grown quickly after its foundation in 1912. 83 With the aid of the ikhwan, Ibn saud captured Al-Ahsa from the Ottomans in 1913. In 1916, with the encouragement and support of Britain (which was fighting the Ottomans in World War i the Sharif of Mecca, hussein bin Ali, led a pan-Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united Arab state.
67 Al-Muntafiq tribe later took over the region and came under Ottoman suzerainty. The bani Khalid tribe later revolted against them in 17th century and took control. 69 Their rule extended from Iraq to Oman at its height and they too came under Ottoman suzerainty. Ottoman Hejaz main article: Ottoman era in the history of saudi Arabia in the 16th century, the Ottomans added the red sea and Persian Gulf coast (the hejaz, asir and Al-Ahsa ) owl to the Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior. One reason was to thwart Portuguese attempts to attack the red sea (hence the hejaz ) and the Indian Ocean. 73 Ottoman degree of control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the Empire's central authority. 74 foundation of the saud dynasty see also: Unification of saudi Arabia the Arabian Peninsula in 1914 The emergence of what was to become the saudi royal family, known as the Al saud, began in Nejd in central Arabia in 1744, when Muhammad bin saud. 76 This alliance formed in the 18th century provided the ideological impetus to saudi expansion and remains the basis of saudi Arabian dynastic rule today.
59 60 For much of the 10th century the Isma'ili -shi'ite qarmatians were the most powerful force in the persian Gulf. In 930, the qarmatians pillaged Mecca, outraging the muslim world, particularly with their theft of the Black Stone. 61 In 10771078, an Arab Sheikh named Abdullah bin Ali Al uyuni defeated the qarmatians in Bahrain and Al-Hasa with the help of the Great Seljuq Empire and founded the uyunid dynasty. 62 63 remote The uyunid Emirate later underwent expansion with its territory stretching from Najd to the syrian desert. 64 They were overthrown by the Usfurids in 1253. 65 Ufsurid rule was weakened after Persian rulers of Hormuz captured Bahrain and Qatif in 1320. 66 The vassals of Ormuz, the Shia jarwanid dynasty came to rule eastern Arabia business in the 14th century. 67 68 The jabrids took control of the region after overthrowing the jarwanids in the 15th century and clashed with Hormuz for more than 2 decades over the region for its economic revenues, until finally agreeing to pay tribute in 1507.
50 The Islamic prophet Muhammad, however, was born in Mecca in about 571. In the early 7th century, muhammad united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity. 51 Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day pakistan in east) in a matter of decades. Arabia soon became a more politically peripheral region of the muslim world as the focus shifted to the vast and newly conquered lands. 51 At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661750) covered 11,100,000 km2 (4,300,000 sq mi) 52 and 62 million people (29 of the world's population 53 making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history. Arab dynasties, originating from modern-day saudi Arabia, hejaz in particular, founded the rashidun (632661 Umayyad (661750 Abbasid (7501517) and the fatimid (9091171) caliphates. From the 10th century to the early 20th century mecca and Medina were under the control of a local Arab ruler known as the Sharif of Mecca, but at most times the Sharif owed allegiance to the ruler of one of the major Islamic empires. Most of the remainder of what became saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule.
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Their loosely controlled trading network, which centered on strings of oases that they controlled, where agriculture was intensively practiced in limited areas, and on the routes that linked them, had no securely defined boundaries in the surrounding desert. Trajan conquered the nabataean kingdom, annexing it to the roman Empire, where their individual culture, easily identified by their characteristic finely potted painted ceramics, was adopted into the larger Greco-roman culture. They were later converted to Christianity. Jane taylor, a writer, describes them as "one of the most gifted peoples of the ancient world". 47 Kingdom of Lihyan main article: Lihyan The kingdom of Lihyan (Arabic: ) or Dedan is an Ancient North Arabian kingdom. It was located in northwestern of the now-day saudi obama Arabia, and is known for its Ancient North Arabian inscriptions dating.
The 6th to 4th centuries. 48 Kindah Kingdom main article: Kindah head of a man from the ancient capital Qaryat al-Faw (1st century bce) in the najd region Fragment of a wall painting showing a kindite king, 1st century ce kindah was a tribal kingdom that was established in the. Its kings essay exercised an influence over a number of associated tribes more by personal prestige than by coercive settled authority. Their first capital was Qaryat Dhāt Kāhil, today known as Qaryat al-Fāw. 49 Middle Ages and rise of Islam Shortly before the advent of Islam, apart from urban trading settlements (such as Mecca and Medina much of what was to become saudi Arabia was populated by nomadic pastoral tribal societies.
The various discoveries reflect the significance of the site as an important ancient civilization and gives it significant pre-historic importance with enough proof and detailed data for re-writing the neolithic history of the Arabian Peninsula and saudi Arabia in particular. Al-Magar also reveals additional information about the relationship between human economic activities and inherent climate change, how hunter-gatherer societies became sedentary, how they made use of natural resources available to them, and how they set into motion the domestication of plants and animals. In november 2017 hunting scenes showing images of most likely domesticated dogs, resembling the canaan dog, wearing leashes were discovered in Shuwaymis, a hilly region of northwestern saudi Arabia. These rock engravings date back more than 8000 years, making them the earliest depictions of dogs in the world. 38 Aramaic inscription from the ancient city of tayma (6th century bc) Dilmun civilization main article: Dilmun Correspondence between Ilī-ippašra, the governor of Dilmun, and Enlil-kidinni, the governor of Nippur,. 1350 bc dilmun is one of the most ancient civilizations in the middle east and in the world.
40 41 It was a major trading centre, and, at the height of its power, controlled the persian Gulf trading routes. 42 43 The dilmun encompassed the east large side of the Arabian Peninsula, particularly in the eastern Province of saudi Arabia. One of the earliest inscriptions naming Dilmun is that of King Ur-Nanshe of Lagash (c. 2300 BC) discovered in a door-socket: "The ships of Dilmun brought him wood as tribute from foreign lands 44 Thamud civilization main article: Thamud Thamud is the name of an ancient civilization in the hejaz known from the 1st millennium bc to near the time. More than 9,000 Thamudic inscriptions were recorded in south-west saudi Arabia. 45 Nabatean Kingdom main article: Nabataeans The nabataeans, also nabateans ( /næbətiənz/ ; Arabic : al-Anbāṭ, compare to Ancient Greek : ναβαταίος, latin : Nabatæus were an Arab 46 people who inhabited northern Arabia and the southern levant, and whose settlements, most prominently the assumed. 100, gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Arabia and Syria, from the euphrates to the red sea.
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31 It is now believed that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75,000 years ago across the bab-el-Mandeb connecting Horn of Africa and Arabia. 32 Before the foundation of saudi Arabia in ancient times the Arabian peninsula served as a corridor for trade and exhibited several civilizations. The history friend before the foundation of saudi Arabia divided into two phases: pre-Islam and after Islam. Pre-Islamic Arabia main article: Pre-Islamic Arabia religions of the people of the Arabian Peninsula before Islam consisted of indigenous polytheistic beliefs, arabian Christianity, nestorian Christianity, judaism and Zoroastrianism. 33 Al-Magar culture main article: Al-Magar Al-Magar was a prehistoric culture whose epicenter lay in modern-day southwestern Najd. Al-Magar is characterized as being one of the first civilizations in the world where widespread domestication of animals occurred, particularly the horse, during the neolithic period. 34 Aside from horses animals such as sheep, goats, dogs, in particular of the saluki race, ostriches, falcons and fish were discovered in the form of stone statues and rock engravings. Radiocarbon dating of these and other objects discovered indicate an age of about 9,000 years.
21 saudi Arabia is considered a regional and middle power. 22 In addition to the gcc, it is an active member essay of the Organisation of Islamic cooperation and opec. 23 Contents Etymology see also: Arab (etymology) Following the unification of the hejaz and Nejd kingdoms, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-Arabīyah as-suūdīyah (a transliteration of in Arabic) by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, Abdulaziz al saud ( Ibn saud. Although this is normally translated as "the kingdom of saudi Arabia" in English, 24 it literally means "the saudi Arab kingdom 25 or "the Arab saudi kingdom". 26 The word "Saudi" is derived from the element as-suūdīyah in the Arabic name of the country, which is a type of adjective known as a nisba, formed from the dynastic name of the saudi royal family, the Al saud ( ). Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family. 27 28 Al saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al, meaning "family of" or "House of 29 to the personal name of an ancestor. In the case of the Al saud, this is the father of the dynasty's 18th-century founder, muhammad bin saud. 30 History main article: History of saudi Arabia there is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 125,000 years ago.
of the Two holy mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca ) and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (in Medina the two holiest places in Islam. As of 2013, the state had a total population.7 million, of which 20 million were saudi nationals and 8 million were foreigners., the population is 33 million. 6 The state's official language is Arabic. Petroleum was discovered on followed up by several other finds in the eastern Province. 11 saudi Arabia has since become the world's largest oil producer and exporter, controlling the world's second largest oil reserves and the sixth largest gas reserves. 12 The kingdom is categorized as a world Bank high-income economy with a high Human development Index 13 and is the only Arab country to be part of the g-20 major economies. 14 However, the economy of saudi Arabia is the least diversified in the gulf cooperation council, lacking any significant service or production sector (apart from the extraction of resources). 15 The state has attracted criticism for its treatment of women and use of capital punishment. 16 saudi Arabia is a monarchical autocracy, 17 18 has the fourth highest military expenditure in the world 19 20 and sipri found that saudi Arabia was the world's second largest arms importer in 20102014.
It is separated from. Israel and Egypt by the gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a red sea coast and a persian Gulf coast and most of its terrain consists of arid desert droughts and mountains. The area of modern-day saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz, najd business and parts of Eastern Arabia ( Al-Ahsa ) and southern Arabia ( 'Asir ). 9 The kingdom of saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn saud. He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the house of saud. Saudi Arabia has since been an absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamic lines.
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For other uses, see. State in Western Asia, saudi Arabia c ( /sɔdi əreɪbiə/ ( listen /saʊ-/ ( listen officially the, kingdom of saudi Arabia (. Ksa d shredder is a sovereign, arab state in, western Asia constituting the bulk of the, arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi saudi Arabia is geographically the fifth-largest state. Asia and second-largest state in the, arab world after, algeria. Saudi Arabia is bordered. Jordan and, iraq to the north, kuwait to the northeast, qatar, bahrain and the, united Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and, yemen to the south.