When participants were asked to focus on feelings at retrieval of memories, they more often classified their memories as the field perspective. 4 13 Self-awareness refers to the reported amount of consciousness an individual had of themselves at the time of the event. 13 A higher level of self-awareness is often associated with observer memories instead of field memories. 4 not in citation given 13 Cultural effects edit Studies have shown that culture can affect the point of view autobiographical memory is recalled. People living in Eastern cultures are more likely to recall memories through an observer point of view than those living in Western cultures. 18 Also, in Eastern cultures, situation plays a larger role in determining the perspective of memory recall than in Western cultures. For example, easterners are more likely than Westerners to use observer perspective when remembering events where they are at the center of attention (like giving a presentation, having a birthday party, etc.). 19 There are many reasons for these differences in autobiographical perspectives across cultures.
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14 Moderators of perspective edit Studies tested the prevalence of field and writers observer memories to determine which kind of memories occur at which times. Some of the moderators that change individuals' recalled perspectives are memory age, emotionality, and self-awareness. 13 Additionally, emotion and affect are associated with the field perspective's brain region, while complex cognitive processing is associated with the observer perspective's brain region. 14 The many factors that contribute to determining memory perspective are not affected by whether the recall of the memory was voluntary or involuntary. 15 Memory age is the amount of time that has passed since the event. 13 Memory age appears to be one of the most important determinants of perspective type. Recent memories are often experienced in the field perspective; as memory age increases, there is also an increase in the amount of observer memories. 13 Perspective is most difficult to change in older memories, especially childhood memories. 13 Emotionality refers to the emotional state of individual at the time that the memory is encoded. 13 events that were relatively essay low in emotional experience are often remembered from a field perspective, whereas events higher in emotion are more likely to remembered from an observer perspective.
The observer perspective is an autobiographical memory recalled from an observer position,. Viewing the action as an outsider. 13 In other words, the remembering person "sees" the whole situation, with themselves. The event is viewed from an external vantage point. There is a wide variation in the spatial locations of this external vantage point, with the location of these perspectives depending business on the event being recalled. 12 The field and observer perspectives have also been described as "pre-reflective" and "reflective respectively. 14 Different brain regions are activated by the pre-reflective and reflective perspectives.
Recalling positive personal experiences can be used to maintain desirable moods or alter undesirable moods. 11 This internal regulation of mood through autobiographical memory recall can be used to cope with negative situation and impart an emotional resilience. 1 The effects of mood on memory are explained in better detail under the Emotion section. Memory perspectives edit people often re-experience visual images when remembering events. One aspect of these images is their perspective. 12 Basically, there are two types of perspective: The field perspective is the type of autobiographical memory recalled from the field of perspective that occurred when the memory was encoded. 13 plan That is, the remembering person doesn't "see" themselves, they see the situation just as they saw it when it happened, through their own eyes. The field of view in such memories corresponds to that of the original situation.
9 Sharing personal memories with others is a way to facilitate social interaction. 1 Disclosing personal experiences can increase the intimacy level between people and reminiscing of shared past events strengthens pre-existing bonds. 1 The importance of this function can easily be seen in individuals with impaired episodic or autobiographical memory, where their social relationships suffer greatly as a result. 11 Autobiographical memory performs a self-representative function by using personal memories to create and maintain a coherent self-identity over time. 1 This self-continuity is the most commonly referred to self-representative function of autobiographical memory. 9 A stable self-identity allows for evaluation of past experiences, known as life reflection, which leads to self-insight and often self-growth. 9 Finally, autobiographical memory serves an adaptive function.
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1 Autobiographical memories can also be differentiated into remember. The source of a remembered memory is attributed to personal experience. The source of a known memory is attributed to an external source, not personal memory. This can often lead to source-monitoring error, wherein a person may believe that a memory is theirs when the information actually came from an external source. 8 Functions edit autobiographical memory serves three broad functions: directive, social, and self-representative.
9 A fourth function, adaptive, was proposed by williams, conway and Cohen (2008). 1 The directive function of autobiographical memory uses past experiences as a reference for solving current problems and a guide for our actions in the present and the future. 1 Memories of personal experiences and the rewards and losses associated with review them can be used to create successful models, or schemas, of behaviour. Which can be applied over many scenarios. 10 In instances where a problem cannot be solved by a generic schema, a more specific memory of an event can be accessed in autobiographical memory to give some idea of how writer to confront the new challenge. 1 The social function of autobiographical memory develops and maintains social bonds by providing material for people to converse about.
3 The working self manipulates the cues used to activate the knowledge structure of the autobiographical knowledge base and in this way can control both the encoding and recalling of specific autobiographical memories. 3 The relationship between the working self and the autobiographical knowledge base is reciprocal. While the working self can control the accessibility of autobiographical knowledge, the autobiographical knowledge base constrains the goals and self-images of the working self within who the individual actually is and what they can. 3 There are four main categories for the types of autobiographical memories: biographical or Personal : These autobiographical memories often contain biographical information pertaining to who you are, such as where one was born or the names of one's parents. Reconstructions : Autobiographical memories have different levels of authenticity. Copies are vivid autobiographical memories of an experience with a considerable amount of visual and sensory-perceptual detail.
Reconstructions are autobiographical memories that are not reflections of raw experiences, but are rebuilt to incorporate new information or interpretations made in hind-sight. Generic : Autobiographical memories vary as to the level of detail. Specific autobiographical memories contain a detailed memory of a certain event (event-specific knowledge generic autobiographical memories are vague and hold little detail other than the type of event that occurred. Repisodic autobiographical memories can also be categorized into generic memories, where one memory of an event is representative of a series of similar events. Observer : Autobiographical memories can be experienced from different perspectives. Field memories are memories recollected in the original perspective, from a first-person point of view. Observer memories are memories recollected from a perspective outside ourselves, a third-person point of view. 1 Typically, older memories are recollected through an observer perspective, 7 and observer memories are more often reconstructions while field memories are more vivid like copies.
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3 Knowledge stored in lifetime periods contain cues for general events, and knowledge at the level of general events calls upon event-specific knowledge. 2 When a cue evenly activates the autobiographical knowledge base hierarchy, all levels of knowledge become available and an autobiographical memory is formed. 2 When the pattern of activation encompasses episodic memory, then autonoetic consciousness may result. 3 Autonoetic consciousness or recollective experience is the sense of "mental time travel" that is experienced when recalling autobiographical memories. 3 These recollections consist of a sense of self in the past and some imagery and sensory-perceptual details. 1 Autonoetic consciousness reflects the integration of parts of the autobiographical knowledge base and the working self. 3 Working paper self edit The working self, often referred to as just the 'self is a set of active personal goals or self-images organized into goal hierarchies. These personal goals and self-images work together summary to modify cognition and the resulting behaviour so an individual can operate effectively in the world. 1 The working self is similar to working memory : it acts as a central control process, controlling access to the autobiographical knowledge base.
plans from original goals anchoring events (events that affirm an individuals beliefs and goals) and analogous events (past events that direct behaviour in the present) are. 5 The sensory-perceptual details held in esk, though short-lived, are a key component in distinguishing memory for experienced events from imagined events. 6 In the majority of cases, it is found that the more esk a memory contains, the more likely the recalled event has actually been experienced. 6 Unlike lifetime periods and general events, esk are not organized in their grouping or recall. Instead, they tend to simply 'pop' into the mind. 2 esk is also thought to be a summary of the content of episodic memories, which are contained in a separate memory system from the autobiographical knowledge base. 3 This way of thinking could explain the rapid loss of event-specific detail, as the links between episodic memory and the autobiographical knowledge base are likewise quickly lost. 3 hierarchical structure of the autobiographical knowledge base These three areas are organised in a hierarchy within the autobiographical knowledge base and together make up the overall life story of an individual.
2, the thematic information in these periods can be used to group them together under broader themes, which can reflect personal attitudes or goals. 2, as an example, a lifetime period with the theme of "when I lost my job" could fall under the broader category of either "when everything went downhill for me" writings or "minor setbacks in my life.". General events are more specific than lifetime periods and encompass single representations of repeated events or a sequence of related events. 2, general events group into clusters with a common theme, so that when one memory of a general event is recalled, it cues the recall of other related events in memory. These clusters of memories often form around the theme of either achieving or failing to achieve personal goals. 2, clusters of general events that fall under the category of "first-time" achievements or occasions seem to have a particular vividness, such as the first time kissing a romantic partner, or the first time going to a ball game. 4, these memories of goal-attainment pass on important information about the self, such as how easily a skill can be acquired, or an individual's success and failure rates for certain tasks. 2, event-specific knowledge (ESK) is vividly detailed information about individual events, often in the form of visual images and sensory-perceptual features.
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Autobiographical memory is a memory system consisting of episodes recollected from an individual's life, based on a combination of episodic (personal experiences and specific objects, people and events experienced at the particular time and place) and semantic (general knowledge and facts about the world) memory. 1, it is thus a type of explicit memory. Contents, formation edit, conway and Pleydell-pearce (2000) proposed that autobiographical memory is constructed within a self-memory system sms a conceptual model composed of an autobiographical knowledge base and the working self. 2, autobiographical knowledge base edit, the autobiographical knowledge base contains knowledge of the self, used to provide information on what the self is, what the self was, and what the self can. This information is categorized into three broad areas: lifetime periods, general events, and event-specific knowledge. 2, lifetime periods are composed of general knowledge about a distinguishable and themed time in an individual's life, such as the period you spend at school (school theme or when you entered the workforce (work theme). Lifetime periods have a distinctive beginning and ending, but they are often fuzzy and overlap. 2, lifetime periods contain thematic knowledge about the features of that period, such as the activities, relationships, and locations involved, as well as temporal knowledge about the duration of the period.