East Asian philosophy main articles: Chinese philosophy, korean philosophy, and Japanese philosophy kitarō Nishida, professor of philosophy at kyoto University and founder of the kyoto School. East Asian philosophical thought began in Ancient China, and Chinese philosophy begins during the western Zhou dynasty and the following periods after its fall when the " Hundred Schools of Thought " flourished (6th century to 221 bce). 48 49 This period was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments and saw the rise of the major philosophical schools of China, confucianism, legalism, and daoism as well as numerous other less influential schools. These philosophical traditions developed metaphysical, political and ethical theories such tao, yin and yang, ren and li which, along with Chinese buddhism, directly influenced Korean philosophy, vietnamese philosophy and Japanese philosophy (which also includes the native shinto tradition). Buddhism began arriving in China during the han Dynasty (206 bce220 ce through a gradual Silk road transmission and through native influences developed distinct Chinese forms (such as Chan/ Zen ) which spread throughout the east Asian cultural sphere. During later Chinese dynasties like the ming Dynasty (13681644) as well as in the korean Joseon dynasty (13921897) a resurgent neo-confucianism led by thinkers such as Wang Yangming (14721529) became the dominant school of thought, and was promoted by the imperial state. In the modern era, chinese thinkers incorporated ideas from Western philosophy.
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It originated in India and later spread to east Asia, tibet, central Asia, and southeast Asia, developing new and syncretic traditions in these different regions. The various Buddhist schools of thought are the summary dominant philosophical tradition in Tibet and southeast Asian countries like sri lanka and Burma. Because ignorance to the true nature of things is considered one of the roots of suffering ( dukkha buddhist philosophy is concerned with epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and psychology. The ending of dukkha also encompasses meditative practices. Key innovative concepts include the four Noble Truths, anatta (not-self) a critique of a fixed personal identity, the transience of all things ( Anicca and a certain skepticism about metaphysical questions. Later Buddhist philosophical traditions developed complex phenomenological psychologies termed ' abhidharma '. Mahayana philosophers such as Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu developed the theories of Shunyata (emptiness of all phenomena) and Vijnapti-matra (appearance only a form of phenomenology or transcendental idealism. The dignāga school of Pramāṇa promoted a complex form of epistemology and Buddhist logic. After the disappearance of Buddhism from India, these philosophical traditions continued to develop in the tibetan Buddhist, east Asian Buddhist and Theravada buddhist traditions. The modern period saw the rise of Buddhist modernism and Humanistic Buddhism under Western influences and the development of a western Buddhism with influences from modern psychology and Western philosophy.
Later developments include the development of Tantra and Iranian-Islamic influences. Buddhism mostly disappeared from India after the muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, surviving in the himalayan regions and south India. 45 The early modern period saw the flourishing of navya-nyāya (the 'new reason under philosophers such as Raghunatha siromani (c. 14601540) who founded first the tradition, jayarama pancanana, mahadeva punatamakara and Yashovijaya (who formulated a jain response). 46 The modern era saw the rise of Hindu nationalism, hindu reform movements and neo-vedanta (or Hindu modernism) whose major proponents included vivekananda, mahatma gandhi and Aurobindo and who for the first time promoted the idea of a unified " Hinduism ". Due to the influence of British colonialism, much modern Indian philosophical work was in English and includes thinkers such as Radhakrishnan, krishna Chandra Bhattacharya, bimal Krishna matilal and. 47 Buddhist philosophy main articles: Buddhist philosophy and Buddhist ethics Buddhist philosophy begins with the thought of gautama buddha (fl. Between sixth and fourth centuries bce) and is preserved in the early buddhist texts. Buddhist thought is trans-regional and trans-cultural.
Some of the earliest surviving philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period (1000500 bce). Important Indian philosophical concepts include dharma, karma, samsara, moksha and ahimsa. Indian philosophers developed general a system of epistemological reasoning ( pramana ) and logic and investigated topics such as metaphysics, ethics, hermeneutics and soteriology. Indian philosophy also covered topics such as political philosophy as seen in the Arthashastra. 4th century bce and the philosophy of love as seen in the kama sutra. The commonly named six orthodox schools arose sometime between the start of the common Era and the gupta Empire. 43 These hindu schools developed what has been statement called the "Hindu synthesis" merging orthodox Brahmanical and unorthodox elements from Buddhism and jainism as a way to respond to the unorthodox challenges. 44 Hindu thought also spread east to the Indonesian Srivijaya empire and the cambodian Khmer Empire.
The work of Aristotle was very influential among the falsafa such as al-Kindi (9th century avicenna (9) and averroes (12th century). Others such as Al-Ghazali were highly critical of the methods of the Aristotelian falsafa. Islamic thinkers also developed a scientific method, experimental medicine, a theory of optics and a legal philosophy. Ibn Khaldun was an influential thinker in philosophy of history. In Iran several schools of Islamic philosophy continued to flourish after the golden Age and include currents such as Illuminationist philosophy, sufi philosophy, and Transcendent theosophy. The 19th and 20th century Arab world saw the nahda (awakening or renaissance) movement which influenced contemporary Islamic philosophy. Indian philosophy see also: Eastern philosophy main article: Indian philosophy Indian philosophy ( Sanskrit : darśana ; 'world views 'teachings 40 is composed of philosophical traditions originating in the Indian subcontinent. Traditions of Indian philosophy are generally classified as either orthodox or heterodox āstika or nāstika depending on whether they accept the authority of the vedas and whether they accept the theories of Brahman and Atman. 41 42 The orthodox schools generally include nyaya, vaisheshika, samkhya, yoga, mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and the common heterodox schools are jain, buddhist, ajñana, ajivika and Cārvāka.
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The 20th century saw the split between Analytic philosophy and Continental philosophy, as well as philosophical essay trends such as Phenomenology, existentialism, logical Positivism, pragmatism and the linguistic turn. Middle eastern philosophy avicenna portrait on Silver Vase, iran see also: Islamic philosophy and Middle eastern philosophy The regions of the fertile Crescent, iran and Arabia are home to the earliest known philosophical Wisdom literature and is today mostly dominated by Islamic culture. Early wisdom literature from the fertile crescent was a genre which sought to instruct people on ethical action, practical living and virtue help through stories and proverbs. In Ancient Egypt, these texts were known as sebayt teachings and they are central to our understandings of Ancient Egyptian philosophy. Babylonian astronomy also included much philosophical speculations about cosmology which may have influenced the Ancient Greeks. Jewish philosophy and Christian philosophy are religio-philosophical traditions that developed both in the middle east and in Europe, which both share certain early judaic texts (mainly the tanakh ) and monotheistic beliefs.
Jewish thinkers such as the geonim of the talmudic Academies in Babylonia and maimonides engaged with Greek and Islamic philosophy. Later Jewish philosophy came under strong Western intellectual influences and includes the works of Moses Mendelssohn who ushered in the haskalah (the jewish Enlightenment jewish existentialism and Reform Judaism. Pre-Islamic Iranian philosophy begins with the work of Zoroaster, one of the first promoters of monotheism and of the dualism between good and evil. This dualistic cosmogony influenced later Iranian developments such as Manichaeism, mazdakism, and Zurvanism. After the muslim conquests, early Islamic philosophy developed the Greek philosophical traditions in new innovative directions. This Islamic Golden Age influenced European intellectual developments. The two main currents of early Islamic thought are kalam which focuses on Islamic theology and Falsafa which was based on Aristotelianism and neoplatonism.
Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics (with competing theories such as atomism and monism cosmology, the nature of the well-lived life ( eudaimonia the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason ( logos ). With the rise of the roman empire, greek philosophy was also increasingly discussed in Latin by romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy (5th 16th century) is the period following the fall of the western Roman empire and was dominated by the rise of Christianity and hence reflects Judeo-christian theological concerns as well as retaining a continuity with Greco-roman thought. Problems such as the existence and nature of God, the nature of faith and reason, metaphysics, the problem of evil were discussed in this period. Some key medieval thinkers include. Augustine, thomas Aquinas, boethius, anselm and Roger Bacon.
Philosophy for these thinkers was viewed as an aid to Theology ( ancilla theologiae ) and hence they sought to align their philosophy with their interpretation of sacred scripture. This period saw the development of Scholasticism, a text critical method developed in medieval universities based on close reading and disputation on key texts. The renaissance (13551650) period saw increasing focus on classic Greco-roman thought and on a robust Humanism. Early modern philosophy in the western world begins with thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes and René descartes (15961650). 36 Following the rise of natural science, modern philosophy was concerned with developing a secular and rational foundation for knowledge and moved away from traditional structures of authority such as religion, scholastic thought and the Church. Major modern philosophers include Spinoza, leibniz, locke, berkeley, hume, and Kant. Th-century philosophy is influenced by the wider movement termed the Enlightenment, and includes figures such as Hegel a key figure in German idealism, kierkegaard who developed the foundations for existentialism, nietzsche a famed anti-Christian,. Mill who promoted Utilitarianism, karl Marx who developed the foundations for Communism and the American William James.
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32 Western philosophy main article: Western philosophy western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the western world and dates to Pre-socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century bce such as Thales (c. 624546 bce) and Pythagoras (c. 570495 bce) who practiced a "love of wisdom" ( philosophia ) 33 and were also termed physiologoi (students of physis, or nature). Socrates was a very influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. 34 Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: night Ancient (Greco-roman medieval philosophy (Christian European and Modern philosophy. The Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, 35 founding the peripatetic school, who were both extremely influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include cynicism, stoicism, greek skepticism and Epicureanism.
Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others. Philosophical progress Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval. 29 Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, 30 while talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. 31 Historical overview In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, world intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality, morality and life in all world civilizations.
history of Western philosophy. Since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors. However, many of those who study philosophy in undergraduate or graduate programs contribute in the fields of law, journalism, politics, religion, science, business and various art and entertainment activities. 26 Contents Introduction Knowledge Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. 14 27 In this sense, philosophy is closely related to religion, mathematics, natural science, education and politics. Newton's 1687 " Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy " is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics; he used the term " natural philosophy " because it used to encompass disciplines that later became associated with sciences such as astronomy, medicine and physics. In Classical antiquity, philosophy was traditionally divided into three major branches: Natural philosophy physics was the study of the physical world ( physis, lit: nature moral philosophy ethics was the study of goodness, right and wrong, beauty, justice and virtue ( ethos, lit: custom metaphysical. 28 This division is not obsolete but has changed. Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory (including aesthetics, ethics, political philosophy, etc.).
13 Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. 14 From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, " natural philosophy " encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics. For example, newton 's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural thesis Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. 16 17 In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics. Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? 18 19 Are there many scientific methods or just one? 20 Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy?
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For other uses, see, philosophy (disambiguation). Philosophy (from, greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of book wisdom " 1 2 3 4 ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. 5 6, the term was probably coined. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. 7 8, classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? 9 10 11 What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? 12 do humans have free will?