"Confederate States Marine corps." civil War. References edit donnelly, ralph. (1989) The confederate States Marine corps: The rebel leathernecks, mcGlone, john., iii, the lost Corps: The confederate States Marines, united States naval Institute Proceedings, november 1972. Thomas (1887) History of the confederate States navy from its organization to the surrender of its last vessel. New York: Rogers and Sherwood, (Reprint: The fairfax Press, 1977 e'book openLibrary sullivan, david., "Biographical sketches Of The commissioned Officers Of The confederate States Marine corps." White mane publishing, 2001. "Battle honors and Services of Confederate marines".
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Uniform edit Example of Confederate marine corps uniform line (Confederate marine Lt Frances. Cameron in 1864) Their uniform resembled that prescribed for the confederate Army, but since the csmc was not as large and many of its records were destroyed in 1865, there is controversy about the exact details of the uniform. It is clear, however, that the marines were often equipped out of the stores of whichever garrison was nearest their location. One description has the marines dressed in frock coats of a particular (and undetermined) shade of gray and dark blue or black trousers. It appears that Confederate States Marines wore forage caps although it is unclear if there was any ornamentation on the cover. Much of the gear worn by the csmc was imported from the United Kingdom and its empire, namely canada, creating a fairly unusual look. Rank Insignia edit sources: 12 13 see also edit sharf,.769772 a b Sharf,.769 a b c d e mcGlone,.6973 Sharf,.770-771 Shafer,.770 Sharf,.770 Sharf,.772 Sharf,.770771 historical Times Encyclopedia of the civil War jones, Charles.,. The life and services of Commodore josiah Tattnall 1878. Morning News steam printing house, savannah. jones, Charles.,., t "Confederate States Marine corps (csmc) uniforms." International Encyclopedia of Uniform Insignia.
9 Service during the war edit confederate marines saw their first naval action aboard the css virginia ( uss merrimack ) off Hampton roads, virginia, march 8 to 9, 1862, and near the end of the war were with part of the naval brigade that fought. From the Drewry's Bluff and other major posts (Wilmington, Charleston, pensacola, norfolk, galveston, and savannah marine detachments were parsed out to serve on major warships and for special operations, including the captures of the uss underwriter and the uss water Witch, and an attack. Marine sea-based amphibious operations included the "Old" css savannah shore party at Fort beauregard, Phillips Island, sc to evacuate the garrison under attack. 10 Marines under the command of Commodore josiah Tattnall were used to construct and man shore batteries which turned back Union gunboats and monitors both at Richmond and at savannah. 11 The end of the war found most surviving Confederate States Marines gathered together in Richmond in support of the last desperate defenses of the south. 3 Marines in Virginia were part of the general Richard. Ewell 's Corps which fought with distinction at the battle of sayler's Creek, 3 the last major battle before the surrender of lee's Army at Appomattox.
New csmc officers were trained in the battalion prior to gender assignment to one of the detached companies (viz., d or E) or directly to one of the shore-based or shipboard Marine detachments. The "field battalion" marines helped repulse the attack made on the bluff. Naval forces including the uss monitor and the uss galena in the summer of 1862. Despite desertions and even near-mutinies, most marines served competently and deserved navy secretary Stephen. Mallory 's praise for their "promptness and efficiency." The corps' weakness was due largely to internal squabbles over rank, shore duty, and administrative assignments. Also, with no funds for bounties, the corps could not easily enlist recruits. Until 1864 the monthly pay of enlisted men was 3 less than that of equivalent army grades. Only database late in the war were the marines allowed to draw from army conscripts to augment their ranks.
Cs marine corps units were stationed at Confederate naval bases, as well as helping garrison shore fortifications such as Fort Fisher in North Carolina. Marines also served on Confederate warships, such as the css alabama. In the famous battle between the ironclads uss monitor and css virginia, company c, confederate States Marine corps, served aboard the css virginia, helping to man several of her guns. In the summer of 1862, some cs marine corps troops were organized into squad-sized units and dispersed throughout the south. 3 Dispersed Marine units were intended to provide training to overcome a shortage of trained naval gunners, with greater overall effect than their service as a single naval artillery battalion. 3 With detachments spread at every major Confederate naval installation, headquarters for the confederate States Marines was established at Fort Darling and Camp beall, located at Drewry's Bluff on the james river in Virginia. As described above, three companies (a, b, and C) were stationed semi-permanently as the "field battalion" at csmc headquarters.
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Company d, initially stationed in Pensacola was disbanded in December, 1861 after being used to fill-out Companies b and c, also serving at that station. Company d was reformed at Mobile and served there, where it remained until that city fell. Company d was the mumbai last organized unit of the csmc to surrender; elements of the company surrendered on may 9, 1865 at Citronelle, al and the remaining platoon, under the command of 1st lieutenant david. Raney,., surrendered at Nanna hubba Bluff, al on may 10, 1865. Company e, initially formed in savannah, subsequently evacuated to Charleston,.
A detachment of the company was sent to wilmington, nc and participated in the unsuccessful defense of Fort Fisher. The remainder of Company e, still at Charleston, ultimately evacuated to north Carolina and joined with General Joseph. Johnston's Army of Tennessee near Raleigh, nc and surrendered with Brigadier General (formerly rear Admiral and commander of the james river Squadron, csn) Raphael Semmes's naval Brigade at Greensboro, nc on April 28, 1865. Company f served originally at New Orleans as a "depot" company (i.e., recruiting and training unit) before being disbanded. It agile was later reformed at Mobile, again as a depot company, supplying Marines for Company d and the battalion at Camp beall, eventually being disbanded for the final time in June 1864.
Colonel beall served throughout the war as the only commandant of the marine corps. 8 Unit organizations edit The. Marine corps was organized into several lettered companies and numerous shore-based and shipboard detachments. Companies a, b, and C were originally formed between April 10 and June 29, 1861 at New Orleans,. Company d, initially recruited in Memphis, tn and Mobile, al (August - september 1861) served in Pensacola, fl before being disbanded there and reformed at Mobile in november, 1861. Company e was formed at savannah, ga in July 1862.
There was also a company f, initially formed at New Orleans in the spring of 1861, where it served for a brief period before being disbanded; it was later reformed at Mobile in April 1863 and disbanded for the second time in June 1864. Companies a, b, and C were individually transferred from New Orleans to pensacola from April through June 1861. Company a was subsequently transferred to savannah in September 1862 before being transferred to camp beall, va, to join Companies b and c, already there. Company b was briefly transferred to mobile, al in February 1862 before being transferred to camp beall a few weeks later to join Company c, which had already been transferred there in november, 1861 to form the nucleus of what would become the organization (with. Tucker's naval Brigade at the battle of saylor's Creek (Virginia) on April 6, 1865. The majority of the battalion surrendered at saylor's Creek on April 7, 1865 with most of the remainder surrendering with the Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox, virginia.
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He was released on Jan 10, 1862 as part of a prisoner exchange, and subsequently joined the csmc in Virginia. "The gross injustice done him was recognized in an act of the confederate congress of April 11, 1863, which provided that 'officers of the navy and Marine corps who resigned from the navy and Marine corps of the United States in consequence of secession, and. 7 Though the officers were mostly former. Marine officers, the head of the corps, colonel-Commandant Lloyd. Beall, was a former. Army paymaster with no marine experience. Beall, usa graduated from the United States Military Academy, and had served in the first Infantry and Second Dragoons before becoming a paymaster from 1844 until the outbreak of the war. He database resigned his commission on April 22, 1861 and was appointed Colonel-Commandant of the cs marine corps on may 23, 1861.
Wilson Missouri first lieutenant Andrew. Hays Alabama first lieutenant Adam. Baker Pennsylvania second book lieutenant george holmes Florida second lieutenant Calvin. Sayre Alabama second lieutenant Henry. Ingraham south Carolina second lieutenant Beckett. Howell Mississippi These officers assembled with the csmc as it stood up in Richmond, virginia, with the exception of Captain Tansill, who had resigned while still on board the uss congress at sea. Captain Tansill was arrested by order of Secretary welles of the. Navy when he arrived in New York on August 23, 1861 and was held without charge, hearing or trial.
Active recruitment source of men edit rank insignia of a csmc captain The commandant of the csmc, colonel-Commandant beall, said the csmc "was composed of enlisted men, many of whom were. Marine corps and elsewhere." 4 The record of us marine officers who "resigned and tendered their swords to the confederate government" 2 were: us marine Officers who resigned 5 Name State major Henry. Tyler (usmc adjutant) Virginia brevet Major george. Terret Virginia captain Robert Tansill Virginia captain Algernon. Taylor Virginia captain John. Simms Virginia first lieutenant Israel Greene virginia first lieutenant John. Tatnall georgia first lieutenant Julius. Meire maryland First lieutenant george. Turner Virginia first lieutenant Thomas.
The csmc headquarters and main training facilities remained in Richmond, virginia throughout the war, located at Camp beall on Drewry's Bluff and at the gosport Shipyard. 1, the last csmc unit surrendered to the. United States on April 9, 1865, with the confederacy itself capitulating to the. Contents, modeled after usmc edit, before the war, the, united States Marine corps had been an "exceptionally fine and well-disciplined" organization, and "from it came the nucleus of the corresponding establishment of the confederate service the csmc. The csmc was modeled after the United States Marine corps, but there were some differences: the confederates organized themselves into permanent companies, summary replaced the fife with the light infantry bugle, and wore uniforms similar to those of British. Like the usmc, when ashore they provided guard detachments for Confederate naval stations at: Richmond, virginia, camp beall, located near, fort Darling. Drewry's Bluff, virginia, wilmington, north Carolina, fort Fisher, charlotte, north Carolina. Charleston, south Carolina, hilton head Island, south Carolina savannah, georgia pensacola, florida (manned naval shore batteries) Mobile, alabama seagoing detachments served aboard the various warships and even on commerce destroyers. Organization edit The.
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The, confederate States Marine corps csmc ) was a branch of the. Confederate States armed forces during the, american civil War. It was established by an lined act of the. Confederate congress on March 16, 1861. The csmc's manpower was initially authorized at 45 officers and 944 enlisted men, and was increased on September 24, 1862 to 1,026 enlisted men. The organization of the corps began. Montgomery, alabama, and was completed at, richmond, virginia, when the capital of the. Confederate States was moved to that location.