3.12 Commercial generators, one of the most important uses of generator is the production of large amount electrical energy for use industry and homes, the two most common energy sources used in operating ac generators are water and steam. . Both of these energy sources have the ability to drive generator at the very high speed at which they operate most efficiently, usually no less than 1500 revolution per minutes. In order to generate hydroelectric power, a turbine is needed. . A turbine consists of a large central shaft on which are mounted a series of fanlike vanes. . As moving water strikes the vane, it causes the magnet to rotate around a central armature, generating electricity. 3.13 Electronic controller. An electronic controller is connected to the generator. . This matches the electrical power that is produced to the electrical load that are connected, and stop the voltage from changing as device are switched on and off.
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Then, when the coil reaches position where it is parallel to the magnetic line of force, no current at all is produced. . As the coil continues to rotate, it cuts thru magnetic lines of force in the opposite direction, and the electrical current generated travels in the opposite direction. . The ends of the coil are attached to the metal slip rings that collect the electrical current. Each slip ring in turn is attached to a metal brush, which transfer the current to an external circuit. Thus, a spinning coil, in a fixed magnetic field will produced an alternating current, one that travel first in one direction and then in the opposite. . The rate at which the current switches back and forth is as its frequency. . Ordinary household current alternate nationalism at a frequency of 60 times per seconds or 60 hertz. The efficiency of an ac generator can be increased by substituting an armature for the wire coil. . An armature consists of a cylinder shaped iron core with a long piece of wire wrapped around. . The longer piece of wire the greater the electrical current that an be generated by the armature.
3.10 Theory of operations. Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. . Since the runner is spinning, the force acts thru a distance. . In this way, energy is transferred from margaret the water flow to the turbine. 3.11 Alternating current generator, a magnet creates magnetic lines of force on either sides of it that move in opposite directions. . As the metal coil passes thru the magnetic field in the generator, the electrical power that is produced constantly changes. . At first, the generated electric current move in one direction (as from left to right). .
Generators can be subdivided into two major categories depending the electric current produced is alternating current or direct current. . The principle on which on both types of generator works is the same, the details constructed of the two may differ somewhat. 3.9 Principle of operations, in1820, danish physicist hans Christian oersted (1777-1851) discovered that an electric current created a magnetic field around. French physicist andre marie ampere (1775-1836) then found that a coil of wire with current running thru it behaved just like a magnet. In about 1831, English physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867) summary discover the scientific principle on which generators operate: electromagnetic induction. . by reversing the work of oersted and extending the work of ampere, faraday reasoned that it a current running thru a coiled wire could produced a magnetic field, then a magnetic field could induced a current of electricity in a coil of wire. . by moving magnet back and forth in or near a coil of wire, he created an electrical current without any other soure of voltage feeding the wire.
They must be encased to contain the water pressure or they must be fully submerged in the water flow. 3.7 Impulse turbine, impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. . The jet pushes on the turbines curved blasé which changes the direction of the flow. . The resulting change in momentum causes a force on the turbine blades since the turbines spinning the force thru a distance and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy. The turbine type is selected based on the speed range and power capacity of alternator to be used. . It can be noticed in the figure that pelton turbine is a quite universal turbine. . It is not always restricted to high head, but of the power transmitted is low, then the pelton will also run on low heads, although at slow rotational speed. . In this pico hydro system, kaplan type of reaction turbine is used to generate electricity. 3.8 Generator, a generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. .
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Irrigation lands use these water turbines for the control and supply of water. . Horizontal centrifugal pumps impel water from lakes, shallow wells and other water reservoirs. . Vertical turbine pumps are used for pipeline plumbing, drainage plumbing, plant and municipal water supply, petrochemical applications, high-pressure pumping and flood control. . a vertical turbine pump is commonly used whenever a liquid has to be pumped out from an the underground water table, underground storage systems or open bodies of water (lakes, rivers, ponds, oceans, and tanks). . Electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy such as that provided by the combustion of fuel or by wind or water, into electrical energy. . It generally wallpaper undergoes electromagnetic induction which works by forcibly moving a loop of wire around a stationary bar that provides an electric field, either through a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. . Motors are usually the source of mechanical energy usually for an electric generator. .
But it may also come from a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy. 3.5 Theory of operations, flowing water is directed on the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades since the runner is spinning, the force acts thru a distance. . In this way, energy transferred from the water to the turbine. Water turbine are divided into two groups; reaction turbine and impulse turbines, the precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of the supply pressure of water, and the type of impeller selected. 3.6 Reaction turbine. Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves thru the turbine and give up its energy.
This disadvantage can be reduced if a site with consistent flow is chosen. Commercial sites are limited or extremely remote resulting in reduced commercial viability. 3.3 Penstock, penstock is open or closed conduits carry water to the turbines. . They are generally made of reinforce concrete or steel. . Concrete penstock is suitable for low head as greater pressure causes rapid deterioration of concrete. .
The steel penstock can be design for any head, the thickness of the penstock increases with the head or working pressure. Penstock for hydroelectric installation is normally equipped with a gate system and a surge tank. Flow is regulated by turbine operation and is nil when turbines are not in service. . maintenance requirements may include how water wash, manual cleaning, antifouling coating, and desiccation. 3.4 Water turbine, a water turbine (also called hydraulic turbine or hydro turbine) converts the kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy. . This mechanical energy can be converted to electrical energy and used for various commercial, industrial and commercial applications. . Micro-turbines are used to produce electricity on a small scale. . They commonly serve villages and small communities Water turbines are used to irrigate lands and crops. According to simplified Irrigation Design, there are two types of water turbines used for irrigation: horizontal centrifugal pump and vertical turbine pump. .
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The water leaves the power plant and is returned to the river without altering the existing flow or water levels. . Most run of river power plant will have a dam across the full width of the river to utilized the entire rivers water for electricity generation such installation will have a very small reservoir behind the dam as there is minimal flooding, they can. From an environmental perspective, a general recommendation is that no more than 20-50 percent of creeks flow should be diverted for a run of the river hydro shredder system. Advantages: Damming and flooding the river is not required as run of the river hydro system dont need a reservoir. People and animals living near the river dont need to be relocated and natural habitats are preserved, reducing the environmental impact. Great for small hydro set ups. Disadvantages: The output of the power plant is highly dependent on natural run off. . Spring melts can create a lot of energy. Conversely, dry seasoned or drought will result energy output. .
They dont store any significant amount of report water. . It usually involves a low level diversion weir or a stream bed intake is usually located on a fast flowing, non seasonal stream or river. A low level diversion weir raises the level of the river water just enough so that a structure for intake can be suited on, or next to the river. . The intake has a debris screen and a submerged opening with an intake gate. . While a stream bed intake require no wire. . The water drops thru a screen inlet duct which a flush the bottom of the riverbed. It is necessary to flush out debris, as rocks and gravel will enter a stream bed intake. With either set up, the water is carried downhill thru a pipe (called a penstock) to a power station downstream of the intake. . The power plant is located at as low a level as possible to gain maximum head on the turbine. .
typically being far cheaper per unit (kwh) of electricity produced than wind power or solar power. . It can be used to do electrical or mechanical work. Pico hydro is water power up to 5kw. . There are thousands of sites where people have a source of falling water but do not have electricity. . For these rural communities, pico hydro is the lowest cost technology for generating electricity Lighting from this source is cheaper than using kerosene lamps, and safer, too. 3.2 Run of the river hydro electricity. Run of the river hydro electric system used water flowing in a river to generate power. .
August, chesapeake tri-Association 2018 Conference Ocean City,. Theoretical Framework, a theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but not necessarily so well worked out, guide for your research, determining what things you will measure, and what statistical relationship you will look for. . It covers the experimental and mathematical method for calculation business purposes of the main electrical equipment which the project is going to used. . That main equipment is the generator, hydro power and pico hydro. . Here, also discussed the theory, parts, function, and principle from basic to complete one. 3.1 Pico hydro system, renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). . In 2008, about 19 of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13 coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating and.2 from hydroelectricity. . New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuel) accounted for another.7 and are growing very rapidly. .
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