It lays out ten ideals: Free inquiry as opposed to censorship and imposition of belief; separation of church and state; the ideal of freedom from religious control and from jingoistic government control; ethics based on critical intelligence rather than that deduced from religious belief; moral. 28 American Humanist Association edit a general outline of Humanism is also set out in the humanist Manifesto prepared by the American Humanist Association. 29 Ethics and relationship to religious belief edit see also: Secular ethics In the 20th and 21st centuries, members of Humanist organizations have disagreed as to whether Humanism is a religion. They categorize themselves in one of three ways. Religious Humanism, in the tradition of the earliest Humanist organizations in the uk and us, attempts to fulfill the traditional social role of religion. 30 Secular humanism considers all forms of religion, including religious Humanism, to be superseded.
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It is not theistic, and it does not accept supernatural views of reality. To promote and unify "Humanist" identity, prominent members of the iheu summary have endorsed the following statements on Humanist identity: All Humanists, nationally and internationally, should always use the one word Humanism as the name of Humanism : no added adjective, and the initial letter capital. Council for Secular Humanism edit According to the council for Secular Humanism, within the United States, the term "secular humanism " describes a world view with the following elements and principles: 8 need to test beliefs a conviction that dogmas, ideologies and traditions, whether religious. Reason, evidence, scientific method a commitment to the use of critical reason, factual evidence and scientific method of inquiry in seeking solutions to human problems and answers to important human questions. Fulfillment, growth, creativity a primary concern with fulfillment, growth and creativity for both the individual and humankind in general. Search for truth a constant search for objective truth, with the understanding that new knowledge and experience constantly alter our imperfect perception. This life a concern for this life (as opposed to an afterlife ) and a commitment to making it meaningful through better understanding of ourselves, our history, our intellectual and artistic achievements, and the outlooks of those who differ from. Ethics a search for viable individual, social and political principles of ethical conduct, judging them on their ability to enhance human well-being and individual responsibility. Justice and fairness an interest in securing justice and fairness in society and in eliminating discrimination and intolerance. 27 building a better world a conviction that with reason, an open exchange of ideas, good will, and tolerance, progress can be made in building a better world for ourselves and our children. A secular Humanist Declaration was issued in 1980 by the council for Secular Humanism 's predecessor, codesh.
Since then two additional Manifestos were written to replace the first. In the Preface of Humanist Manifesto ii, in 1973, the authors paul Kurtz and Edwin. Wilson assert that faith and knowledge are required for a hopeful vision for the future. Manifesto ii references a section on Religion and states traditional religion renders a disservice to humanity. Manifesto II recognizes the following groups to be part of their naturalistic philosophy : "scientific "ethical "democratic "religious and "Marxist" humanism. International Humanist and Ethical Union edit In 2002, the iheu general Assembly unanimously adopted the Amsterdam Declaration 2002 which represents the official defining statement of World Humanism. 25 All member organisations of the International Humanist and Ethical Union are required by thesis bylaw.1 26 to accept the minimum Statement on Humanism : Humanism is a democratic and ethical life stance, which affirms that human beings have the right and responsibility to give. It stands for the building of a more humane society through an ethic based on human and other natural values in the spirit of reason and free inquiry through human capabilities.
23 The American Humanist Association was incorporated as an Illinois non-profit organization in 1943. The International Humanist and Ethical roles Union was founded in 1952, when a gathering of world Humanists met under database the leadership of Sir Julian Huxley. The British Humanist Association took that name in 1967, but had developed from the Union of Ethical Societies which had been founded by Stanton coit in 1896. 24 Manifestos and declarations edit humanists have put together various Humanist Manifestos, in attempts to unify the humanist identity. The original signers of the first Humanist Manifesto of 1933, declared themselves to be religious humanists. Because, in their view, traditional religions were failing to meet the needs of their day, the signers of 1933 declared it a necessity to establish a religion that was a dynamic force to meet the needs of the day. However, this "religion" did not profess a belief in any god.
By 1896 the four London societies formed the Union of Ethical Societies, and between 19 there were over fifty societies in Great Britain, seventeen of which were affiliated with the Union. The Union of Ethical Societies would later incorporate as the Ethical Union, a registered charity, in 1928. Under the leadership of Harold Blackham, it renamed itself the British Humanist Association in 1967. It became humanists uk in 2017. Secular humanism edit In the 1930s, " humanism " was generally used in a religious sense by the Ethical movement in the United States, and not much favoured among the non-religious in Britain. Yet "it was from the Ethical movement that the non-religious philosophical sense of Humanism gradually emerged in Britain, and it was from the convergence of the Ethical and Rationalist movements that this sense of Humanism eventually prevailed throughout the Freethought movement". 22 As an organized movement, humanism itself is quite recent born at the University of Chicago in the 1920s, and made public in 1933 with the publication of the first Humanist Manifesto.
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17 At that point it was a unitarian chapel, and that movement, like quakers, supported female equality. 18 Under the leadership of reverend William Johnson Fox, 19 it lent its pulpit to activists such as Anna Wheeler, one of the first women to campaign for feminism at public meetings in England, who spoke in 1829 on "rights of women". In later decades, the chapel changed its name to the south Place Ethical Society, now the conway hall Ethical Society. Today conway hall explicitly identifies itself as a humanist organisation, albeit one primarily focused on concerts, events, and the maintenance of its humanist library and archives. It bills itself as "The landmark of Londons independent intellectual, political and cultural life." In America, the ethical movement was propounded by felix Adler, who established the new York society for Ethical Culture in 1877.
20 by 1886, similar societies had sprouted up in Philadelphia, chicago and. 21 These societies all adopted the same statement of principles: The paper belief that morality is independent of theology; The affirmation that new moral problems have arisen in modern industrial society which have not been adequately dealt with by the world's religions; The duty to engage. In effect, the movement responded to the religious crisis of the time by replacing theology with unadulterated morality. It aimed to "disentangle moral ideas from religious doctrines, metaphysical systems, and ethical theories, and to make them an independent force in personal life and social relations." 21 Adler was also particularly critical of the religious emphasis on creed, believing it to be the source. He therefore attempted to provide a universal fellowship devoid of ritual and ceremony, for those who would otherwise be divided by creeds. For the same reasons the movement at that time adopted a neutral position on religious beliefs, advocating neither atheism nor theism, agnosticism nor deism. 21 The first ethical society along these lines in Britain was founded in 1886.
In 1878, the society established the Church of Humanity under Congreve's direction. There they introduced sacraments of the religion of Humanity and published a co-operative translation of Comte's Positive polity. When Congreve repudiated their Paris co-religionists in 1878, beesly, harrison, Bridges, and others formed their own positivist society, with beesly as president, and opened a rival centre, newton Hall, in a courtyard off Fleet Street. The new York city version of the church was established by English immigrant Henry Edger. The American version of the "Church of Humanity".
Was largely modeled on the English church. Like the English version it wasn't atheistic and had sermons and sacramental rites. 13 At times the services included readings from conventional religious works like the book of Isaiah. 14 It was not as significant as the church in England, but did include several educated people. 15 Ethical movement edit Another important precursor was the ethical movement of the 19th century. The south Place Ethical Society was founded in 1793 as the south Place Chapel on Finsbury Square, on the edge of the city of London, 16 and in the early nineteenth century was known as "a radical gathering-place".
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Positivism the Church of fuller Humanity edit holyoake's secularism was strongly influenced by auguste comte, the founder of positivism and of modern sociology. Comte believed human history would progress in a " law of three stages " from a theological phase, to the " metaphysical toward a fully rational "positivist" society. In later life, comte had attempted to introduce a " religion of humanity " in light of growing anti-religious sentiment and social malaise in revolutionary France. This religion would necessarily fulfil the functional, cohesive role that supernatural religion once served. Although Comte's religious movement was unsuccessful in France, the positivist philosophy of science itself played a major role in the proliferation of secular organizations in the 19th century in England. Richard Congreve visited Paris shortly after the French revolution of 1848 where he met Auguste comte and was heavily influenced by his positivist system. He founded the london Positivist Society in 1867, which attracted Frederic Harrison, edward Spencer beesly, vernon Lushington, and James Cotter Morison amongst others.
These writings were lost to european societies until Renaissance scholars rediscovered them through Muslim sources and translated them from Arabic into european languages. 10 Thus the term humanist can mean a humanities scholar, as well as refer to The Enlightenment / Renaissance intellectuals, and those who have agreement with the pre-socratics, as distinct from secular methodology humanists. Secularism edit george holyoake coined the term "secularism" and led the secular movement in Britain from the mid-19th century. In 1851 george holyoake coined the term "secularism" 11 to describe "a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life". 12 The modern secular movement coalesced around Holyoake, charles Bradlaugh and their intellectual circle. The first secular society, the leicester Secular Society, dates from 1851. Similar regional societies came together to form the national Secular Society in 1866.
should be used. The endorsement by the iheu of the capitalization of the word Humanism, and the dropping of any adjective such as secular, is quite recent. The American Humanist Association began to adopt this view in 1973, and the iheu formally endorsed the position in 1989. In 2002 the iheu general Assembly unanimously adopted the Amsterdam Declaration, which represents the official defining statement of World Humanism for Humanists. This declaration makes exclusive use of capitalized Humanist and Humanism, which is consistent with iheu's general practice and recommendations for promoting a unified Humanist identity. To further promote humanist identity, these words are also free of any adjectives, as recommended by prominent members of iheu. Such usage is not universal among iheu member organizations, though most of them do observe these conventions. History edit historical use of the term humanism (reflected in some current academic usage is related to the writings of pre-socratic philosophers.
Secular humanist organizations are found in all parts of the world. Those who call themselves humanists are estimated to dates number between four and five million people worldwide. Contents Terminology edit The meaning of the phrase secular humanism has evolved over time. The phrase has been used since at least the 1930s by Anglican priests, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, william Temple, was reported as warning that the "Christian tradition. Was in danger of being undermined by a 'secular Humanism ' which hoped to retain Christian values without Christian faith." 6 During the 1960s and 1970s the term was embraced by some humanists who considered themselves anti-religious, 7 as well as those who, although not. 8 The release in 1980 of a secular Humanist Declaration by the newly formed council for Democratic and Secular Humanism (codesh, now the council for Secular Humanism ) gave secular humanism an organisational identity within the United States. However, many adherents of the approach reject the use of the word secular as obfuscating and confusing, and consider that the term secular humanism has been "demonized by the religious right. All too often secular humanism is reduced to a sterile outlook consisting of little more than secularism slightly broadened by academic ethics.
What is, humanism and
Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making. 1 2 3 4, secular humanism posits that human beings are capable of being ethical and moral without religion or a god. It does not, however, assume that humans are either inherently evil or innately good, nor does it present humans as being superior to nature. Rather, the humanist life stance emphasizes the unique responsibility facing humanity and the ethical consequences of human decisions. Fundamental to the concept of secular humanism is the strongly held viewpoint that ideology—be it religious or political—must be thoroughly examined by each individual and not simply accepted or rejected on faith. Along with this, an essential part of secular humanism is a continually adapting search for truth, primarily through science and philosophy. Many secular humanists derive their moral codes from a philosophy of utilitarianism, ethical naturalism, or evolutionary ethics, and some advocate a science of morality. The International Humanist and Ethical Union (iheu) is the world union of more than one hundred Humanist, rationalist, irreligious, atheistic, bright, secular, ethical Culture, and freethought organizations in more than 40 countries. The " Happy human " is the official symbol of the iheu as well as being regarded as a universally recognised symbol for those literature who call themselves Humanists.