On a worldwide scale, illiteracy disproportionately impacts women. 26 According to 2015 uis data collected by the unesco institute for Statistics, about two-thirds (63) of the world's illiterate adults are women. This disparity was even starker in previous decades: from 1970 to 2000, the global gender gap in literacy would decrease by roughly. 27 In recent years, however, this progress has stagnated, with the remaining gender gap holding almost constant over the last two decades. 22 In general, the gender gap in literacy is not as pronounced as the regional gap; that is, differences between countries in overall literacy are often larger than gender differences within countries. 28 However, the gap between men and women would narrow from 1990 onwards, after the increase of male adult literacy rates at 80 per cent (see image). 21 Sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the lowest overall literacy rates, also features the widest gender gap: just 52 of adult females are literate, and 68 among adult men.
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21 Regional disparities edit available global data indicates significant variations in literacy inggris rates between world regions. North America, europe, west Asia, and Central Asia have achieved almost full adult literacy (individuals at or over the age of 15) for both men and women. Most countries in East Asia and the pacific, as well as Latin America and the caribbean, are above a 90 literacy rate for adults. 22 Illiteracy persists to a greater extent in other regions: 2013 unesco institute for Statistics (UIS) data indicates adult literacy rates of only,.55 in south Asia and North Africa,.76 in Sub-Saharan Africa. 23 Literacy has rapidly spread in several regions over the last twenty-five years. In much of the world, high youth literacy rates suggest that illiteracy will become less and less common as younger generations with higher educational attainment levels replace older ones. 24 However, in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, where the vast majority of the world's editing illiterate youth live, lower school enrollment implies that illiteracy will persist to a greater degree. 25 According to 2013 uis data, the youth literacy rate (individuals ages 15 to 24).03 in south Asia and North Africa, and.06 in Sub-Saharan Africa. 23 That being said, literacy has rapidly spread in several regions in the last twenty-five years (see image). 21 Gender disparities edit gender parity indices in youth literacy rates by region, 19902015. Progress towards gender parity in literacy started after 1990.
The reformation stressed the importance of literacy and being able to read Bible. The Protestant countries were the first to attain full literacy; Scandinavian countries were fully literate in the early 17th century. The Church demanded literacy as the pre-requisite for marriage in Sweden, this further propagating full literacy. Modern literacy edit Spread of literacy since the mid-twentieth century edit Adult literacy rates have increased at a constant pace since 1950. Literacy data published by unesco displays that since 1950, the adult literacy rate at the world level has increased by 5 percentage points every decade on average, from.7 per cent in 1950.2 per cent in 2015. However, for four decades, the population growth was so rapid that the number of illiterate adults kept increasing, rising from 700 million in 1950 to 878 million in 1990. Since then, the number has fallen markedly to 745 million in 2015, although it remains higher than in 1950 despite decades of universal education policies, literacy interventions and the spread of print material and information and communications technology (ICT). However, these trends have been far from uniform across regions.
Even so, in pre-modern times it is unlikely that literacy was found in more than about 30-40 of the proposal population. 19 In the late fourth century the desert Father Pachomius would expect literacy of a candidate for admission to his monasteries: they shall give him twenty Psalms or two of the Apostles' epistles or some other part of Scripture. And if he is illiterate he shall go at the first, third and sixth hours to someone who can teach and has been appointed for him. He shall stand before him and learn very studiously and with all gratitude. The fundamentals of a syllable, the verbs and nouns shall all be written for him and even if he does not want to he shall be compelled to read. 20 The post-Antiquity illiteracy was more than anything due to lack of suitable writing medium. When the western Roman Empire collapsed, the import of papyrus ceased to europe. Since papyrus perishes easily and does not last well in the european climate, the only alternative was parchment, which was extremely expensive and accessible only by the Church and upper layers of the society. Once paper was introduced in Europe in the 12th century, also literacy saw sharp resurgence.
The Aramaic language would die out with the spread of Islam and with it, its influence of Arabic. Ancient and post-classical literacy edit further information: Latin alphabet Until recently it was thought that the majority of people were illiterate in ancient times. 15 However, recent work would challenge this perception. 16 Anthony direnzo asserts that Roman society was "a civilization based on the book and the register and "no one, either free or slave, could afford to be illiterate". 17 Similarly dupont points out, "The written word was all around them, in both public and private life: laws, calendars, regulations at shrines, and funeral epitaphs were engraved in stone or bronze. The republic amassed huge archives of reports on every aspect of public life". 18 When the western Roman Empire fell apart, literacy became a distinguishing mark of the elite, and communications skills were politically important.
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12 When the Israelites migrated to presentation canaan between 12 bce, they also adopted a variation of report the canaanite alphabet. Baruch ben Neriah, jeremiah's scribe, used this alphabet to create the later scripts of the Old Testament. The early hebrew alphabet was prominent in the mediterranean region until Chaldean Babylonian rulers exiled the jews to babylon in the sixth century bce. It was then that the new script Square hebrew emerged and the older one rapidly died out. 11 The Aramaic alphabet also emerged sometime between 12 bce. As the Bronze age collapsed, the Aramaeans moved into canaan and Phoenician territories and adopted their scripts.
Although early evidence of this writing is scarce, archeologists have uncovered a wide range of later Aramaic texts, written as early as the seventh century bce. Due to its longevity and prevalence in the region, Achaemenid rulers would come to adopt it as a "diplomatic language". 13 The modern Aramaic alphabet rapidly spread east to the kingdom of Nabataea, then to sinai and the Arabian Peninsula, eventually making its way to Africa. Aramaic merchants carried older variations of the language as far as India, where it later influenced the development of Brahmi scripture. It also led to the developments of Arabic, pahlavi (an Iranian adaptation "as well as for a range of alphabets used by early turkish and Mongol tribes in Siberia, mongolia and Turkestan ". 14 Literacy at this period spread with the merchant classes and may have grown to number 15-20 of the total population.
Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to goody's findings. This included a series of inscriptions from Ugarit, discovered in 1929 by French archaeologist Claude. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts (written in an early canaanite dialect) that consisted of a 32-letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet. Another significant discovery was made in 1953 when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century bce. According to Frank moore Cross, these inscriptions consisted of alphabetic signs that originated during the transitional development from pictographic script to a linear alphabet. Moreover, he asserts, "These inscriptions also provided clues to extend the decipherment of earlier and later alphabetic texts".
10 The consonantal system of the canaanite script inspired alphabetical developments in subsequent systems. During the late Bronze age, successor alphabets appeared throughout the mediterranean region and were employed for Phoenician, hebrew and Aramaic. According to goody, these cuneiform scripts may have influenced the development of the Greek alphabet several centuries later. Historically, the Greeks contended that their writing system was modeled after the Phoenicians. However, many semitic scholars now believe that Ancient Greek is more consistent with an early form Canaanite that was used. While the earliest Greek inscriptions are dated. Eighth century bce, epigraphical comparisons to Proto-canaanite suggest that the Greeks may have adopted the consonantal alphabet as early as 1100 bce, and later "added in five characters to represent vowels". 11 Phoenician, which is considered to contain the first "linear alphabet", rapidly spread to the mediterranean port cities in northern Canaan. 10 Some archeologists believe that Phoenician scripture had some influence on the developments of the hebrew and Aramaic alphabets based on the fact that these languages evolved during the same time period, share similar features, and are commonly categorized into the same language group.
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Many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system (c. 750 bce) that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels. But goody contests, "The importance of Greek culture of the subsequent history of Western Europe has led to an over-emphasis, by classicists and others, on the addition of specific vowel signs to the set of consonantal ones that had been developed earlier in Western Asia". 9 Thus, many scholars argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan (modern-day syria ) invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 bce. Much of this theory's development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie, who, in 1905, came across a series of Canaanite inscriptions located in the turquoise mines of Serabit el-Khadem. Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these letters contain paper an alphabet, as well as references to the canaanite goddess Asherah. In 1948, william.
Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations note in 900-400 bce. These civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. The earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 bce. These systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite. These oracle-bone inscriptions were the early ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script and numerals. These examples indicate that early acts of literacy were closely tied to power and chiefly used for management practices, and probably less than 1 of the population was literate, as it was confined to a very small ruling elite. Origins of the alphabet edit According to social anthropologist Jack goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet.
of education Illiteracy rate in France in the 18th and 19th centuries Prehistoric literacy edit Origins of literacy edit literacy is thought to have first emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices. Script developed independently at least four times in human history in Mesopotamia, egypt, lowland Mesoamerica, and China. 6 Bill of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak, sumerian tablet, circa 2600 bc the earliest forms of written communication originated in Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about bce. During this era, literacy was "a largely functional matter, propelled by the need to manage the new quantities of information and the new type of governance created by trade and large scale production". 7 Writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production. 8 The token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets. Proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but also ideograms depicting objects being counted. 6 Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from bce and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites. The Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values.
Oecd countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and father's ability to assess complex contexts. 2, a person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would also be regarded by the locals as being illiterate. The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds ( phonology spelling patterns ( orthography word meaning ( semantics grammar ( syntax ) and patterns of word formation ( morphology all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency. Once these skills are acquired, the reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to apply to printed material critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the basis for informed. 3, the inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. 4, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (. Unesco ) defines literacy as the "ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts.
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"Reading and writing" redirects here. For the journal, see. Reading and Writing (journal). World map indicating literacy rate by country in 2015 (2015 cia. World Factbook ) Grey no data, world illiteracy halved between. Brain areas involved in literacy acquisition. Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write. 1, the modern term's meaning business has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture. 2, the concept of literacy is expanding.