The organization multiplies with local volunteer ambassadors 17 who lead zero waste gatherings and events to spread the zero waste message. Packaging example edit returnable glass milk bottles main article: sustainable packaging main article: reusable packaging Milk can be shipped in many forms. One of the traditional forms was reusable returnable glass milk bottles, often home delivered by a milkman. While some of this continues, other options have recently been more common: one-way gable-top paperboard cartons, one-way aseptic cartons, one-way recyclable glass bottles, one-way milk bags, and others. Each system claims some advantages and also has possible disadvantages. From the zero waste standpoint, the reuse of bottles is beneficial because the material usage per trip can be less than other systems. The primary input (or resource) is silica - sand, which is formed into glass and then into a bottle.
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Many observers look to nature as an ultimate model for production and innovative materials. Others point out that industrial products are inherently non-natural (such as chemicals and plastics that are mono-molecular) and benefit greatly from industrial methods of reuse, while natural methods requiring degradation best and reconstitution are wasteful in that context. Biodegradable plastic is the most prominent example. One side argues that biodegradation of plastic is wasteful because plastic is expensive and environmentally damaging to make. Whether made of starch english or petroleum, the manufacturing process expends all the same materials and energy costs. Factories are built, raw materials are procured, investments are made, machinery is built and used, humans labor and make use of all normal human inputs for education, housing, food etc. Even if the plastic is biodegraded after a single use, all of those costs are lost so it is much more important to design plastic parts for multiple reuse or perpetual lives. The other side argues that keeping plastic out of a dump or the sea is the sole benefit of interest. Companies moving towards "zero landfill" plants include subaru, xerox and Anheuser-Busch. 16 The movement continues to grow among the youth around the world under the organization Zero waste youth, which originated in Brazil and has spread to Argentina, puerto rico, mexico, the United States, and Russia.
The california integrated Waste management board established a zero waste goal in 2001. 11 The city and county of San Franciscos Department of the Environment established a goal of zero waste in 2002, 12 which led to the city's Mandatory recycling and Composting Ordinance in 2009. 13 With professional its ambitious goal of zero waste and policies, san Francisco reached a record-breaking 80 diversion rate in 2010, 14 the highest diversion rate in any north American city. San Francisco received a perfect score in the waste category in the siemens us and Canada Green City Index, which named San Francisco the greenest city in North America. 15 Present day edit The tension between zero waste, viewed as post-discard total recycling of materials only, and zero waste as the reuse of all high level function remains a serious one today. It is probably the defining difference between established recyclers and emerging zero-wasters. A signature example is the difference between smashing a glass bottle (recovering cheap glass) and refilling the bottle (recovering the entire function of the container). The tension between the literal application of natural processes and the creation of industry-specific more efficient reuse modalities is another tension.
The website offers numerous specific examples of ways in which products can be designed so that discard is unnecessary since the lifetime of the product is extended to at least a threshold value of approximately a human lifetime of 100 years. A fully worked out set of principles and analysis is presented, revolving, among other changes, around standardization, modularization and robust design. A theory of design efficiency leading to design effectiveness is presented, which means that once a product is designed to be used in perpetuity, it can be fitted out with robust features, strong materials and special conveniences that could not be afforded in a product. That theory is applied to packages as an example. The zwi rejects all association with the world of recycling, pointing out that there is no theory of recycling in existence; only a trusting hope that it can be useful. Edit The movement gained publicity and reached a peak in 19982002, and since then has been moving from "theory into action" by focusing on about how a "zero waste community" is structured and behaves. The website of the zero waste International Alliance has a listing of communities across the globe that have created public policy to promote zero-waste practices. See also the Eco-cycle website for examples of how this large nonprofit is leading boulder county, colorado on a zero-waste path and watch a 6-minute video about the zero-waste big picture. Finally, there is a usa zero-waste organization named the GrassRoots Recycling Network that puts on workshops and conferences about zero-waste activities.
Many magazine articles were written about them and several television shows featured them. The california integrated Waste management board produced a slide show featuring zws's business and the epa published a number of studies of their business, calling them an "active waste exchange". The heir to the zws mantle is the zero waste Institute (zwi also founded by paul Palmer, which can be found. Building on the lessons learned from zws, the zwi considers recycling to be no more than an appendage to garbage creation and the garbage industry. Zwi likewise rejects all attempts to reuse garbage or any kind of waste product. Instead, zwi calls for the redesign of all of the products of industry and commerce, and the processes that produce, sell and make use of them, so that discard never takes place and there is no waste generated needing to be reused or recycled. Discard is seen as the critical step, a commercial and psychological transfer of responsibility which breaks the chain of custody of a product, removes its owner and subjects it to the degradation of garbage management.
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This can help reduce incidences of the respiratory diseases and birth defects that are associated with the toxins released from landfills. Zero waste also can help preserve local environments and drinking water sources by preventing pollutants from entering the ecosystem. History edit 1970s: Zero waste systems Inc edit The term zero waste was first used publicly in the name of a company, zero waste systems Inc. (zws which was founded by PhD chemist paul Palmer in the mid-1970s in oakland, california. The mission of zws was to find new homes for most of the chemicals being excessed by the nascent electronics industry. They soon expanded their services in many other directions.
For example, they accepted free of charge, large quantities of new and usable laboratory chemicals which they resold to experimenters, scientists, companies and tinkerers of every description during the 1970s. Zws arguably had the largest inventory of laboratory chemicals in all of California, which were sold for half price. They also collected all of the solvent produced by the electronics industry called developer/rinse (a mixture of xylene and butyl acetate ). This was put into small cans and sold as a lacquer thinner. Zws collected all the "reflow oil" created by the printed circuit industry, which was filtered and resold into the "downhole" short (oil well) industry. Zws pioneered many other projects. Because they were the only ones in the world in this business, they achieved an international reputation.
Since waste is a sign of inefficiency, the reduction of waste can reduce costs. A zero waste strategy improves upon production processes and improving environmental prevention strategies which can lead to take larger, more innovative steps. A zero waste strategy supports all three of the generally accepted goals of sustainability - economic well-being, environmental protection, and social well-being. 8 Improved material flows. A zero waste strategy would use far fewer new raw materials and send no waste materials to landfills.
Any material waste would either return as reusable or recycled materials or would be suitable for use as compost. 8 health edit a major issue with landfills is hydrogen sulfide, which is released during the natural decay of waste. Studies have shown a positive association between increased lung cancer mortality rates and increased morbidity and mortality related to respiratory disease and hydrogen sulfide exposure. These studies also showed that the hydrogen sulfide exposure increased with proximity to the landfill. 8 household chemicals and prescription drugs are increasingly being found in large quantities in the leachate from landfills. This is causing concern about the ability of landfills to contain these materials, and the possibility of these chemicals and drugs making their way into the ground water and the surrounding environment. 9 Zero waste promotes a circular material flow that allows materials to be used over and over, reducing the need for landfill space. 10 Through zero waste the number of toxins released into the air and water would be decreased and products examined to determine what chemicals are used in the production process. Health Issues related to landfills: Birth Defects and Low birth weight: Associated with close proximity to landfills, exposure to particle matter and Nitrogen dioxide respiratory disease and Lung Cancer: Related to the release of Hydrogen Sulfide zero wastes promotion of a cyclical product life can.
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7 There is a growing global population that is faced with limited resources from the environment. 7 to relieve the pressures business placed on the finite resources available it has become more important to prevent waste. To achieve zero waste, waste management has to move from a linear system to being more cyclical so that materials, products and substances are used as efficiently as possible. Materials must be chosen so that it may either return safely to a cycle within the environment or remain viable in the industrial cycle. 8 Zero waste promotes not only reuse and recycling, but, more importantly, it promotes prevention and product designs that consider the entire product life cycle. 8 Zero waste designs strive for reduced materials use, use of recycled materials, use of more benign materials, longer product lives, reparability, and ease of disassembly at end of life. 3 Zero waste strongly supports sustainability by protecting the environment, reducing costs and producing additional jobs in the management and handling of wastes back into the industrial cycle. 8 a zero waste strategy may be applied to businesses, dates communities, industrial sectors, schools and homes. Benefits proposed by advocates include: saving money.
It has designed an upholstery fabric, Climatex Lifecycle, which is a blend of pesticide - and residue-free wool and organically aloud grown ramie, dyed and processed entirely with nontoxic chemicals. Benefits edit social and economic edit The spread of industrialization worldwide has been accompanied by a large increase in waste production. In 2012 the world Bank stated that.3billion tonnes of municipal waste was produced by urban populations and estimates that that number will reach.2 billion tonnes by 2025 (Global Solid Waste management Market - analysis and Forecast). The increase in solid waste production increase the need for landfills. With the increase in urbanization these landfills are being placed closer to communities. These landfills are disproportionately located in areas of low socioeconomic status with primarily non-white populations. Findings indicated these areas are often targeted as waste sites because permits are more easily acquired and there was generally less community resistance. Additionally, within the last five years, more than 400 hazardous waste facilities have received formal enforcement actions for unspecified violations that were considered to be a risk to human health.
waste. 6 Cradle-to-cradle focuses on designing industrial systems so that materials flow in closed loop cycles which mean that waste is minimized, and waste products can be recycled and reused. Cradle-to-cradle simply goes beyond dealing with issues of waste after it has been created, by addressing problems at the source and by re-defining problems by focusing on design. 6 The cradle-to-cradle model is sustainable and considerate of life and future generations. 6 The cradle-to-cradle framework has evolved steadily from theory to practice. 3 In the industrial sector, it is creating a new notion of materials and material flows. Just as in the natural world, in which one organisms waste, cycles through an ecosystem to provide nourishment for other living things, cradle-to-cradle materials circulate in closed-loop cycles, providing nutrients for nature or industry. 6 An example of a closed loop, cradle-to-cradle product design is DesignTex Fabric.
Zero waste refers to waste management and planning approaches which emphasize waste prevention as opposed to end-of-pipe waste management. 2, it is a whole systems approach that aims for a massive change in the way materials flow through society, resulting in no waste. 2, zero waste encompasses more than eliminating waste through recycling and reuse, it focuses on restructuring production and distribution systems to reduce waste. 3, zero waste is more of a goal or ideal rather than a hard target. 4, zero waste provides guiding principles for continually working towards eliminating wastes. 2, advocates expect that government regulation is needed 3 2 to influence industrial choices over product and packaging design, manufacturing processes, and material selection. 5, advocates say eliminating waste eliminates pollution, and can also reduce costs due to reduced need for raw materials. Cradle-to-cradle / cradle-to-grave edit, cradle-to-grave is a term used to describe a linear model for materials that begins with presentation resource extraction, moves to product manufacturing, and, ends with a grave, where the product is disposed of in a landfill.
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Used products dumped in a landfill. Zero waste is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused. The goal is for paper no trash to be sent to landfills or incinerators. The process recommended is one similar to the way that resources are reused in nature. The definition adopted by the. Zero waste International Alliance (zwia) 1 is: Zero waste is a goal that is ethical, economical, efficient and visionary, to guide people in changing their lifestyles and practices to emulate sustainable natural cycles, where all discarded materials are designed to become resources for others. Zero waste means designing and managing products and processes to systematically avoid and eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and not burn or bury them. Implementing Zero waste will eliminate all discharges to land, water or air that are a threat to planetary, human, animal or plant health.