The museion was partially destroyed in. The library at Pergamon, founded by Attalus I ; it contained 200,000 volumes which were moved to the serapeion by mark Antony and Cleopatra, after the destruction of the museion. The serapeion was partially destroyed in 391, and the last books disappeared in 641 ce following the Arab conquest. The library at Athens, the Ptolemaion, which gained importance following the destruction of the library at Alexandria ; the library of Pantainos, around 100 CE; the library of Hadrian, in 132. The library at Rhodes, a library that rivaled the library of Alexandria. The library at Antioch, a public library of which Euphorion of Chalcis was the director near the end of the 3rd century.
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It may serve to confirm the values of a political system, as during the reign of the emperor Augustus, who skillfully surrounded himself with weather great authors. This is a good ancient example of the control of the media by a political power. However, private and public censorship have continued into the modern era, albeit in various forms. Proliferation and conservation of books in Greece edit little information concerning books in Ancient Greece survives. Several vases (6th and 5th centuries BC) bear images of volumina. There was undoubtedly no extensive trade in books, but there existed several sites devoted to the sale of books. The spread of books, and attention to their cataloging and conservation, as well as literary criticism developed during the hellenistic period with the creation of large libraries in response to the desire for knowledge exemplified by Aristotle. These libraries were undoubtedly also built as demonstrations of political prestige: The library essay of Alexandria, a library created by Ptolemy soter and set up by demetrius Phalereus (Demetrius of Phaleron). It contained 500,900 volumes (in the museion section) and 40,000 at the serapis temple ( Serapeion ). All books in the luggage of visitors to Egypt were inspected, and could be held for copying.
The status of the author was not regarded as absolutely personal. From a political and religious point of view, books were censored very early: the works of Protagoras were burned because he was a proponent of agnosticism and argued that one could not know whether or not the gods existed. Generally, cultural conflicts led to important periods of book destruction: in 303, the emperor diocletian ordered the burning of Christian texts. Some Christians later burned libraries, and especially heretical or non-canonical Christian texts. These practices shredder are found throughout human history but have ended in many nations today. A few nations today still greatly censor and even burn books. But there also exists a less visible but nonetheless effective form of censorship when books are reserved for the elite; the book was not originally a medium for expressive liberty.
This design allows business only sequential usage; one is obliged to read the text friend in the order in which it is written, and it is impossible to place a marker in order to directly access a precise point in the text. It is comparable to modern video cassettes. Moreover, the reader must use both hands to hold on to the vertical wooden rolls and therefore cannot read and write at the same time. The only volumen in common usage today is the jewish Torah. Book culture edit The authors of Antiquity had no rights concerning their published works; there were neither authors' nor publishing rights. Anyone could have a text recopied, and even alter its contents. Scribes earned money and authors earned mostly glory, unless a patron provided cash; a book made its author famous. This followed the traditional conception of the culture: an author stuck to several models, which he imitated and attempted to improve.
Legend attributes its invention to eumenes ii, the king of Pergamon, from which comes the name "pergamineum which became "parchment." Its production began around the 3rd century. Made using the skins of animals (sheep, cattle, donkey, antelope, etc. parchment proved to be easier to conserve over time; it was more solid, and allowed one to erase text. It was a very expensive medium because of the rarity of material and the time required to produce a document. Vellum is the finest quality of parchment. Greece and Rome edit The scroll of papyrus is called "volumen" in Latin, a word which signifies "circular movement "roll "spiral "whirlpool "revolution" (similar, perhaps, to the modern English interpretation of "swirl and finally "a roll of writing paper, a rolled manuscript, or a book.". It is called codex by way of metaphor from the trunks ( caudex ) of trees or vines, as if it were a wooden stock, because it contains in itself a multitude of books, as it were of branches. Description edit The scroll is rolled around two vertical wooden axes.
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Nearly all mayan texts were destroyed by the business Spanish during colonization on cultural and religious grounds. One of the few surviving examples is the Dresden Codex. 15 Although only the maya have been shown to have a writing system capable of conveying any concept that can be conveyed via speech (at about the same level as the modern Japanese writing system other Mesoamerican cultures had more rudimentary ideographical writing systems which. Wax tablets edit woman holding wax tablets in the form of the codex. Wall painting from Pompeii, before.
Romans used wax-coated wooden tablets or pugillares upon which game they could write and erase by using a stylus. One end of the stylus was pointed, and the other was spherical. Usually these tablets were used for everyday purposes (accounting, notes) and for teaching writing to children, according to the methods discussed by quintilian in his Institutio oratoria x chapter. Several of these tablets could be assembled in a form similar to a codex. Also the etymology of the word codex (block of wood) suggest that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets. 16 Parchment edit main article: Parchment Parchment progressively replaced papyrus.
7 8 The oldest extant printed book is a work of the diamond Sutra and dates back to 868 ad, during the tang Dynasty. 7 The diamond Sutra was printed by method of woodblock printing, a strenuous method in which the text to be printed would be carved into a woodblock's surface, essentially to be used to stamp the words onto the writing surface medium. 9 woodblock printing was a common process for the reproduction of already handwritten texts during the earliest stages of book printing. This process was incredibly time-consuming. 10 Because of the meticulous and time-consuming process that woodblock printing was, bi sheng, a key contributor to the history of printing, invented the process of movable type printing ( AD).
11 12 bi sheng developed a printing process in which written text could be copied with the use of formed character types, the earliest types being made of ceramic or clay material. 11 12 The method of movable type printing would later become improved by johannes Gutenberg. 13 Pre-columbian codices of the Americas edit In Mesoamerica, information was recorded on long strips of paper, agave fibers, or animal hides, which were then folded and protected by wooden covers. These were thought to have existed since the time of the Classical Period between the 3rd and 8th centuries,. Many of these codices were thought to contain astrological information, religious calendars, knowledge about the gods, genealogies of the rulers, cartographic information, and tribute collection. Many of these codices were stored in temples but were ultimately destroyed by the Spanish explorers. 14 Currently, the only completely deciphered pre-columbian writing system is the maya script. The maya, along with several other cultures in Mesoamerica, constructed concertina-style books written on Amatl paper.
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Some books, such as the summary history of the reign of Ramses iii, were over 40 meters long. Books rolled out horizontally; the text occupied one side, and was divided into columns. The title was indicated by a label attached to the cylinder containing the book. Many papyrus texts come from tombs, where prayers and sacred texts were deposited (such as the book of the dead, from the early 2nd millennium BC). East Asia edit a chinese bamboo book before the introduction of books, writing on bone, shells, wood and silk was prevalent in China long before the 2nd century bc, until paper was invented in China around the 1st century. The discovery of the process using the bark of the blackberry bush is attributed to Ts'ai lun (the cousin of Kar-Shun but it may be older. 6 Texts were reproduced by woodblock printing ; the diffusion of Buddhist texts was a main impetus to large-scale production. The format of the book evolved with intermediate stages of scrolls folded concertina -style, scrolls bound at one edge butterfly books and. Although there is no exact date known, between 618 and 907 adthe period of the tang Dynastythe first printing of books started in China.
Nineveh, over 20,000 tablets were found, dating from the 7th century bc; this was the archive and library of the kings. Assyria, who had workshops of copyists and conservationists at their disposal. This presupposes a degree of organization with respect to books, consideration given to conservation, classification, etc. Tablets were used right up until the 19th century in various parts of the world, including Germany, chile, philippines and the saharan Desert. 2 3, papyrus edit, main article: Papyrus Egyptian Papyrus After extracting the marrow from the stems of Papyrus reed, a series of steps (humidification, pressing, drying, gluing, and cutting) produced media of variable quality, the best being used for sacred writing. 4 In Ancient Egypt, papyrus was used as a medium for writing surfaces, maybe interesting as early as from First Dynasty, but first evidence is from the account books of King Neferirkare kakai of the fifth Dynasty (about 2400 BC). 5 A calamus, the stem of a reed sharpened to a point, or bird feathers were used for writing. The script of Egyptian scribes was called hieratic, or sacerdotal writing ; it is not hieroglyphic, but a simplified form more adapted to manuscript writing (hieroglyphs usually being engraved or painted). Papyrus books were in the form of a scroll of several sheets pasted together, for a total length of 10 meters or more.
eventually lead to the mass printed tomes prevalent today. Contemporary books may even have no physical presence with the advent of the e-book. The book also became more accessible to the disabled with the advent. Braille and spoken books. Contents, clay tablets edit, clay tablets were used in, mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium. The calamus, an instrument in the form of a triangle, was used to make characters in moist clay. People used to use fire to dry the tablets out.
live webinar, now includes legal book questions that may very likely be on the nclex. Now includes multidisciplary team questions that may very likely be on the nclex. Also includes core nursing questions that you learned in school. free audio samples, this exam includes some parts all of the quizzeffer but you may purchase separately if desired. Modern book printing, the fourth of the six. Walk of Ideas sculptures displayed in, berlin during 2006, represents a pile of modern codex books. The history of books starts with the development of writing, and various other inventions such as paper and printing, and continues through to the modern day business of book printing.
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Now this exam has delegation, and prioritization throughout the the entire exam. click here for sample, now includes the entire infection. Control seminar quiz, click here for sample, now includes chart exhibits, hot spot, fill in the blank and sata questions as described in my video. How to answer alternate format questions. Now includes the entire ekg quiz as described in my video, understanding and interpreting ekg's for the nclex. Now includes pharmacological math questions as described in my video, math for meds, now includes medications that may very likely be on the nclex. Medications for the nclex, now includes triage iisaster. .