"A dramatic map that will change the world." daily telegraph February 14, 2001. "The sequence of the human genome." Science 291, (2001). Nature Vs Nurture Essay, research Paper. The controversy over what determines who we are, whether it is Nature (heredity, our biological make up) or Nurture (our environment) is taking a new shape. Through the past decades, psychologists have developed different theories to explain the characteristics of human-beings. Usually, these theories were one directional in the nature / nurture question. Today, a new approach to deal with this question is emerging.
Lord of the Flies by william Golding - goodreads
Baharloo., service. K., risch., gitschier., Freimer. "Familial aggregation of absolute pitch." American journal of Human Genetics, september 67, 755-8 (2000). "Son Conceived to provide. Blood Cells For daughter." New York times, October 4, 2000. The International Human Genome sequencing Consortium. "Initial sequencing and analysis of the valuation human genome." Nature 409, 860-921 (2001). Lichtenstein., holm. K., Iliadou., kaprio., koskenvuo. M., pukkala., skytthe., hemminki. "Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer - analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, denmark, and Finland." New England journal of Medicine, july 13, 343, 78-85 (2000).
Time will tell whether there is a "perfect pitch" gene, but it seems reasonable to think that many personality and the behavioral traits will not be exclusively the province of nature or nurture, but rather an inextricable combination of both. Highly sophisticated technology, like this gene-sequencing machine at Celera genomics, is helping to spur advances in molecular medicine. Enlarge, photo credit: wgbh educational foundation, gene genies, regardless of how many genes are ultimately linked to disease risk and human behavior, one thing is certain: The technology to detect and possibly select genes for future generations is rapidly improving. In the near future, dna chips will exist that can detect thousands of the most significant variations in our dna. A decade or two from now, parents of newborn babies may leave the hospital with a full genome analysis of their offspring that reveals hundreds of disease-related risk factors and susceptibilities. And doctors will be able to screen for more and more traits using in vitro fertilization techniques such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Doctors demonstrated the power of pgd last year when the jack and Lisa nash family of Englewood, colorado selected an embryo that not only lacked the gene for a fatal genetic disease, fanconi anemia, but also provided a bone marrow match for their dying daughter. Thus, while venter is undoubtedly right when he proclaims that "humans are not hardwired increasingly we will be able to fiddle with our genetic wiring such that, in the complex balance achieved by nature and nurture, nature gets a little boost.
Enlarge, photo credit: wgbh educational foundation, yet is it realistic to believe that single genes can have a major impact on behavior? Much attention is currently focused on the genes that code for proteins involved in the transmission of electrical signals in the brain. If drugs such as the antidepressant Prozac work by altering the activity of neurotransmitters (brain chemicals that convey messages between nerve cells it is plausible that inherited variations in the proteins that produce those chemicals could exert a dramatic effect on an individual's mood and. But even business the most diehard geneticists acknowledge that the environment plays a major role in shaping our behavior, temperament, and intelligence. The technology to detect and possibly select genes for future generations is rapidly improving. With so much attention on explaining behavior in terms either of nature or nurture, scientists at the University of California, san Francisco recently described a fascinating example of how heredity and environment can interact. Perfect pitch is the ability to recognize the absolute pitch of a musical tone without any reference note. People apple with perfect pitch often have relatives with the same gift, and recent studies show that perfect pitch is a highly inherited trait, quite possibly the result of a single gene. But the studies also demonstrate a requirement for early musical training (before age six) in order to manifest perfect pitch.
Enlarge, photo credit: wgbh educational foundation, but divining dna variations to uncover health risks will increasingly threaten our ability to land and hold jobs, secure insurance, and keep our personal genetic profiles private. "We're all ultimately unemployable and uninsurable warns New York representative louise Slaughter, co-author of a new genetic privacy bill in Congress, "even the president of a health insurance company!" Without laws prohibiting genetic discrimination, she says, society may soon begin penalizing people with "bad" genes. Even though 22 states have passed genetic privacy laws, Slaughter believes the confidentiality of your genetic code should not depend on your zip code. Francis Collins, director of the public genome project, says "We don't get to pick our genes, so our genes shouldn't be used against.". Becoming us, while the next few years will undoubtedly see major progress in rooting out genetic factors that influence our likelihood of contracting common diseases, what about the role that genes play in shaping human behavior and personality? Despite the media hype following recent claims for the discovery of genes controlling addiction, shyness, thrill seeking, and most controversially, sexual orientation, in reality these genes have provided little more than tantalizing clues to these traits. No one has identified (or even claimed to have identified) a "gay gene and the first few genes associated with other personality traits appear to have only a minor effect. However, with the full genome sequence now accessible over the Internet, scientists hope to pin down many more genes that code for various aspects of human behavior. Ever since the early days of genome sequencing, scientists have searched for elusive genetic clues to human behavior.
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In fact, the meager tally of human genes is not the affront to our species' potter self-esteem as it first appears. More genes will undoubtedly come to light over the next year or two as researchers stitch together the final pieces of the human genome. More importantly, human genes give rise to many related proteins, each potentially capable of performing a different function in our bodies. A conservative estimate is that 30,000 human genes produce ten times as many proteins in the human body, and figuring out what these proteins do will be a challenge for a century or more. "This is just halftime for genetics says Eric Lander, a leading member of the public genome project, alluding to decades of work ahead to unravel the function of all the proteins in the body. Notwithstanding the valuable discovery of brca1, the "breast cancer gene researchers insist the causes of cancer lie more with nurture than with nature.
Enlarge, photo credit: wgbh educational foundation, our snips, ourselves. The key to ultimately defining the respective roles of genes and environment lies with "snips"—genespeak for the sites littered throughout our dna that frequently vary between unrelated people. About three million differences exist in the genomes of any two unrelated people, but of these only about 10,000 or so are likely to have any functional consequences. Scientists have already linked some of these specific dna variations with increased risk of common diseases and conditions, including cancer, asthma, diabetes, hypertension, and Alzheimer's. Other snips affect the way people react toward certain drugs. Identifying these flaws will enable doctors to predict individual disease risks, recommend suitable lifestyle regimens, and prescribe the safest and most effective drugs. Fingering the flaws in their patients' genetic code will enable doctors of the near future to better prepare those individuals with high risk for certain diseases.
After a decade of hype surrounding the human Genome Project, punctuated at regular intervals by gaudy headlines proclaiming the discovery of genes for killer diseases and complex traits, this unexpected result led some journalists to a stunning conclusion. The seesaw struggle between our genes (nature) and the environment (nurture) had swung sharply in favor of nurture. The news that shocked the world: we have only about twice as many genes as your average fruit fly. Enlarge, photo credit: wgbh educational foundation "We simply do not have enough genes for this idea of biological determinism to be right asserted Craig Venter, president of Celera genomics, one of the two teams that cracked the human genome last February. "Halftime for genetics indeed, venter has wasted little time in playing down the importance of the genes he has catalogued.
He cites the example of colon cancer, which is often associated with a defective "colon cancer" gene. Even though some patients carry this mutated gene in every cell, the cancer only occurs in the colon because it is triggered by toxins secreted by bacteria in the gut. Cancer, argues Venter, is an environmental disease. Strong support for this viewpoint appeared last year in the new England journal of Medicine. Researchers in Scandinavia studying 45,000 pairs of twins concluded that cancer is largely caused by environmental rather than inherited factors, a surprising conclusion after a decade of headlines touting the discovery of the "breast cancer gene the "colon cancer gene and many more. Everyone carries between five and 50 genetic glitches that might predispose that person to a serious physical or mental illness. But can the role of heredity really be dismissed so easily?
The lord of the rings - the fellowship / Characters
The fear began in the big-uns when Sam and Eric claim to be chased by a flying beast. This fear kept the boys from having a fire on mountain and gave some of the littleuns nightmares. This fear also essay made jack give offerings to the beast, a pigs head. This gruesome act had been believed to work so when the time came jack wanted to put Ralphs head on a stick. This savagery is what lead to the final conflict with Ralph and Jack as Ralph held on to the last bit of goodness on the island, his life. In conclusion the deterioration of the rules of civilization and its role in preventing about humans from following their natural inclination toward savagery can be seen through these three examples: the six hunts, the loss of effectiveness of the conch, and the drastic actions caused. The most shocking surprise that emerged from the full sequence of the human genome earlier this year is that we are the proud owners of a paltry 30,000 genes—barely twice the number of a fruit fly.
You left it behind. See, clever?- And the conch doesnt count on this side of the island- (Lord of the Flies, page 166). The conch eventually is destroyed, along with Piggy killed, and the last symbol of authority over the boys is vanished. The destruction of the conch symbolizes the final loss of authority ralph has and the final event that led Jack to be overcome fully by savagery. The last example of the deterioration of the rules of civilization is the boys fear of the great beast and how they began to offer sacrifices to the beast. Throughout the novel, the beasts caused a great amount of fear within the boys. The fear started within littleuns being afraid the of the dark and many other objects on the island.
example that displays the deterioration of the rules of civilization. The conch was first the most important item and symbol of authority that the boys had on the island. We will write a custom essay sample on Lord of the Flies: civilization. Savagery specifically for you for only.38.9/page, order now, we will write a custom essay sample on Lord of the Flies: civilization. Savagery specifically for you. For only.38.9/page, hire Writer, we will write a custom essay sample on Lord of the Flies: civilization. For only.38.9/page, hire Writer, the conch was used to call meetings and govern over the boys. But, eventually over time people like jack started to ignore it and break the rules. He and other boys faulted away and the conch became useless And ive got the conch- you havent got it with you, said Jack sneering.
Jack was scared of the idea of killing and spilling blood of a living animal. This action shows that Jack was still held back by the rules of civilization. This close paper call is what started to fuel Jacks obsession to hunt to kill. After Jack killed his first pig, and realized that he can kill without any negative consequences, he brutally killed a mother sow with piglets. He then cut the head off and placed it on a stick that was sharpened at both ends as a sacrifice to the beast. This shows Jacks savage obsession to kill pigs was beginning to take over, and his fear of blood was no more. This brutal kill was savage and reckless. Jack became so confident that he can kill anything, that it lead him to want to hurt a human. Jack ended up becoming so savage that he hunted Ralph.
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Savagery, william Goldings, lord of the Flies is a novel that displays the power and importance of the rules of civilization and its role in preventing humans from following their natural inclination toward savagery. This novel displays how the rules of civilization are overcome by savagery when rules and authority get displaced, and savagery starts to become inevitable. When the boys were first placed on the island it was the boys original instinct to be civil and just. The boys voted on a leader, ralph, and established rules and jobs for the boys to do and follow. This civility between the boys can be seen deteriorating throughout the course of the six hunts. Jack, who was obsessed with hunting pigs to prove himself as a hunter, is the leader of this deterioration. This deterioration started first when the three of the boys were on an expedition to search the island for any signs of other people. The three boys came across a piglet stuck in the brush but Jack froze because the enormity of the knife descending and cutting into living flesh; real because of the unbearable blood (Lord of the Flies, page 29).