Somewhat formal and fastidious, and a little aloof and imperious of manner, the calm hauteur of his accustomed reserve but masks, for those who know him, a naive and eager humanity, an intuition quick and tender as a woman's, a humour gay and winning. Pre-eminently rational and practical, discreet and dispassionate in his estimate and acceptance of life, the obvious sanity and serenity of his worldly wisdom effectually disguise a shy and splendid idealism which is of the very essence of the man. However, gandhi's emergence in the 1920s - and the radically different style of politics he introduced which drew in the masses - marginalized Jinnah. The increasing emphasis on Hinduism and the concomitant growth in communal violence worried Jinnah. Throughout the decade he remained president of the muslim league but the party was virtually non-existent. The congress had little time for him now, and his unrelenting opposition to British imperialism did not win him favour with the authorities.
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Jinnah cut a handsome figure at this time, as described in a standard biography by an American professor: 'raven-haired with a moustache almost as full as Kitchener's and srinivasa lean as a rapier, he sounded like ronald Coleman, dressed like anthony Eden, and was adored. A british general's wife met him at a viceregal dinner in Simla and wrote to her mother in England: After dinner, i had. Jinnah to talk. He is a great personality. He talks the most beautiful English. He models his manners and clothes on du maurier, the actor, and his English on Burke's speeches. He is a future viceroy, if the present system of gradually Indianizing all the services continues. I have always wanted to meet him, and now I have had my wish. Mrs Sarojini naidu, the nationalist poet, was infatuated: to her, jinnah was the man of the future (see her 'mohammad Ali jinnah - ambassador of Hindu-muslim unity. He symbolized everything attractive about modern India. Although her love remained unrequited she wrote him passionate poems; she also wrote about him in purple prose worthy of a mills and boon romance: Tall and stately, but thin to the point of emaciation, languid and luxurious of habit, writer mohammad Ali jinnah's attenuated form.
Presiding over the night extraordinary session, he described himself as 'a staunch Congressman' who had 'no love for sectarian cries' (Afzal 1966: 56-62). This was the high point of his career as ambassador of the two communities and the closest the congress and the muslim league came. About this time, he fell in love with a parsee girl, rattanbai (Ruttie) Petit, known as 'the flower of Bombay'. Sir Dinshaw Petit, her father and a successful businessman, was furious, since jinnah was not only of a different faith but more than twice her age, and he refused his consent to the marriage. As Ruttie was under-age, she and Jinnah waited until she was 18, in 1918, and then got married. Shortly before the ceremony ruttie converted to Islam. In 1919 their daughter Dina was born. By this time even the British recognized Jinnah's abilities. Edwin Montagu, the secretary of State for India, wrote of him in 1917: 'jinnah is a very clever man, and it is, of course, an outrage that such a man should have no chance of running the affairs of his own country' (sayeed 1968: 86).
Muslims saw in him a heavyweight on their side. For his part, jinnah thought the muslim league was 'rapidly growing into general a powerful factor for the birth of a united India' and maintained that the charge of 'separation' sometimes levelled at Muslims was extremely wide of the mark. On the death of his mentor, gokhale, in 1915, jinnah was struck with 'sorrow and grief' (Bolitho 1954: 62 and in may 1915 he proposed that a memorial to gokhale be constructed. A reviews few weeks later in a letter to The times of India he argued that the congress and league should meet to discuss the future of India, appealing to muslim leaders to keep pace with their Hindu 'friends'. Jinnah was elected president of the lucknow Muslim league session in 1916 (from now he would be one of its main leaders, becoming president of the league itself from 1920 to 1930 and again from 1937 to 1947 until after the creation of pakistan). Jinnah's political philosophy was revealed in the lucknow conference in the same year when he helped bring the congress and the league on to one platform to agree on a common scheme of reforms. Muslims were promised 30 per cent representation in provincial councils. A common front was constructed against British imperialism. The lucknow Pact between the two parties resulted.
When Minto reprimanded Jinnah for using the words 'harsh and cruel' in describing the treatment of the Indians in south Africa, jinnah replied: 'my lord! I should feel much inclined to use much stronger language. But i am fully aware of the constitution of this council, and I do not wish to trespass for one single moment. But I do say that the treatment meted out to Indians is the harshest and the feeling in this country is unanimous' (Wolpert 1984: 33). Jinnah was an active and successful member of the (mainly hindu) Indian Congress from the start and had resisted joining the muslim league until 1913, seven years after its foundation. None the less, jinnah stood up for Muslim rights. In 1913, for example, he piloted the muslim wakfs (Trust) Bill through the viceroy's Legislative council, and it won widespread praise.
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In short he learned to resume use British law skilfully against the British. At several points in his long career, jinnah was threatened by the British with imprisonment on sedition charges for speaking in favour of Indian home rule or rights. He was frozen out by those British officials who wished their natives to be more deferential. For example, lord Willingdon, viceroy of India in 1931-6, did not take to him, and even the gruff but kindly lord wavell, viceroy in 1943-7, was made to feel uncomfortable by jinnah's clear-minded advocacy of the muslims, even though he recognized the justice of Jinnah's. The last Viceroy, however, lord mountbatten, could not cope with what he regarded as Jinnah's arrogance and haughtiness, preferring the natives to be more friendly and pliant. Ambassador of Hindu-muslim unity, on his return from England in 1896, jinnah joined the Indian National Congress.
In 1906 he attended the calcutta session as secretary to dadabhai naoroji, who was now president of Congress. One of his patrons and supporters,. Gokhale, a distinguished Brahmin, called him 'the best ambassador of Hindu-muslim unity'. When Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the hindu nationalist, was being tried by the British on sedition charges in 1908 he asked Jinnah to represent him. On jinnah took his seat as the 'muslim member from Bombay' on the sixty-man Legislative council of India in Delhi. Any illusions the viceroy, lord Minto, may have harboured about the young Westernized lawyer as a potential ally were soon laid to rest.
Jinnah's conduct reflected the prickly Indian expression of independence. On one occasion in Bombay, when Jinnah was arguing a case in court, the British presiding judge interrupted him several times, exclaiming, 'rubbish.' jinnah responded: 'your honour, nothing but rubbish has passed your mouth all morning.' sir Charles Ollivant, judicial member of the bombay provincial. Jinna declined, saying he would soon earn that amount in a day. Not too long afterwards he proved himself correct. Stories like these added to jinnah's reputation as an arrogant nationalist.
His attitude towards the British may be explained culturally as well as temperamentally. He was not part of the cultural tradition of the United Provinces (UP) which had revolved around the imperial Mughal court based in Delhi and which smoothly transferred to the British after they moved up from Calcutta. Exaggerated courtesy, hyperbole, dissimulation, long and low bows, salaams that touched the forehead repeatedly - these marked the deference of courtiers to imperial authority. Even Sir sayyed Ahmad Khan, one of the most illustrious champions of the muslim renaissance in the late nineteenth century, came from a family that had served the mughals, but had readily transferred his loyalties to the British. Jinnah often antagonized his British superiors. Yet he was clever enough consciously to remain within the boundaries, pushing as far as he could but not allowing his opponents to penalize him on a point of law.
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Had those who have written about Jinnah's recollection bothered to visit Lincoln's Inn the mystery would have been solved. However, knowledge of the pictorial depiction of the holy Prophet would certainly spark protests; demands from the active british Muslim community for the removal of the painting would be heard in the. In London Jinnah had discovered a passion for nationalist politics and had assisted Dadabhai naoroji, the first Indian Member summary of Parliament. During the campaign he became acutely aware of racial prejudice, but he returned to India to practise law at the bombay bar in 1896 after a brief stopover in Karachi. He was then the only muslim barrister in Bombay (see plate 1). Jinnah was a typical Indian nationalist at the turn of the century, aiming to get rid of the British from the subcontinent as fast as possible. He adopted two strategies: one was to try to operate within the British system; the other was to work for a united front of Hindus, muslims, Christians and Parsees against the British. He succeeded to an extent in both.
It has been said that Jinnah chose lincoln's Inn because he saw the Prophet's name at the entrance. I went to lincoln's Inn looking for the name on the gate, but there is no such gate nor any names. There is, however, a did gigantic mural covering one entire wall in the main dining hall of Lincoln's Inn. Painted on it are some of the most influential lawgivers of history, like moses and, indeed, the holy Prophet of Islam, who is shown in a green turban and green robes. A key at the bottom of the painting matches the names to the persons in the picture. Jinnah, i suspect, was not deliberately concealing the memory of his youth but recalling an association with the Inn of court half a century after it had taken place. He had remembered there was a link, a genuine appreciation of Islam.
business with Jinnah's father in Karachi, he was married to Emibai, a distant relative (F. It could be described as a traditional Asian marriage - the groom barely 16 years old and the bride a mere child. Emibai died shortly after Jinnah left for London; Jinnah barely knew her. But another death, that of his beloved mother, devastated him (ibid.). Jinnah asserted his independence by making two important personal decisions. Within months of his arrival he left the business firm to join Lincoln's Inn and study law. In 1894 he changed his name by deed poll, dropping the 'bhai' from his surname. Not yet 20 years old, in 1896 he became the youngest Indian to pass. As a barrister, in his bearing, dress and delivery jinnah cultivated a sense of theatre which would stand him in good stead in the future.
However, jinnah's date of birth - 25 December 1876 - and place of birth are presently under academic dispute. Just before jinnah's birth his father, jinnahbhai poonja, had moved from Gujarat to karachi. Significantly, jinnah's father was born in 1857 - at the end of one kind of Muslim history, with the failed uprisings in Delhi - and died in 1901 (F. Jinnah's family traced its descent from Iran and reflected Shia, sunni pdf and Ismaili influences; some of the family names - valji, manbai and Nathoo - were even 'akin to hindu names' (F. Such things mattered in a muslim society conscious of underlining its non-Indian origins, a society where people gained status through family names such as sayyed and Qureshi (suggesting Arab descent Ispahani (Iran) and Durrani (Afghanistan). Another source has a different explanation of Jinnah's origins. Mr Jinnah, according to a pakistani author, said that his male ancestor was a rajput from Sahiwal in the punjab who had married into the Ismaili Khojas and settled in Kathiawar (Beg 1986: 888). Although born into a khoja (from khwaja or 'noble family who were disciples of the Ismaili Aga Khan, jinnah moved towards the sunni sect early in life. There is evidence later, given by his relatives and associates in court, to establish that he was firmly a sunni muslim by the end of his life (Merchant 1990).
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Chapter one, jinnah, pakistan and Islamic Identity, the search for Saladin. Ahmed, routledge, read the review, understanding Jinnah. God cannot alter the past, but historians can. (Samuel lined Butler islam gave the muslims of India a sense of identity; dynasties like the mughals gave them territory; poets like allama Iqbal gave them a sense of destiny. Jinnah's towering stature derives from the fact that, by leading the pakistan movement and creating the state of pakistan, he gave them all three. For the pakistanis he is simply the quaid-i-azam or the Great leader. Whatever their political affiliation, they believe there is no one quite like him. Jinnah: a life, mohammed Ali jinnah was born to an ordinary if comfortable household in Karachi, not far from where Islam first came to the Indian subcontinent in ad 711 in the person of the young Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim.