Simplicity in orders and actions will be required. Most importantly, soldiers and units will be led and sustained in a manner that ensures they are physically and psychologically capable of responding. To meet the requirements of the battlefield and deal with its challenges, military leaders require special characteristics. First, they need the ability to assess the situation rapidly and form their battlefield vision. Second, they should have a high tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty. Finally, they should have a capability to learn rapidly since the free will of the opponent will ensure that most situations and circumstances appear different from what is expected. Combined, these characteristics provide a capability to make timely decisions. The importance of timely decision is even more to those leaders who don't posses the capability to compress and shorten response times with the help of technology.
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Moreover, it is the basis on which senior leaders or commanders generate the moral leadership power, activate the professional resources needed to muster and sustain english organizational trust, cohesion, commitment, and will to meet any challenge. (Check that all the points are covered that i am going to explain in subsequent paragraph). Methodology, statement of Problem. The aim of this dissertation is to study and understand the nature of plausible challenges faced by a military leader of developing countries in the 21st century and the requirement of traits for the military leader to combat these challenges. Understanding of human dimensions by the leaders merits serious considerations. While the impact of technology on campaigns and battles is significant, the man behind the gun still remains in the centre stage during conduct of the operation. The facet is more pertinent for the developing countries where the doctrine can't afford to drive the technology. A commander must possess an electrifying personality to energize the under command and drive them to the point of exhaustion when needed. Success in the battlefield will depend on the combined effect of many teams, units, formations, and organizations. Effective command, control, coordination and interoperability amongst the services will be essential.
If we study the life and works of great military leaders we find that each had his strong points and his weaknesses. What distinguished them from common mortals is their ability to appreciate their strong and weak areas. They then capitalized on their strength and shunned their weaknesses. Through training, practice and a positive attitude to improve oneself, it is possible to acquire the qualities of a good military leader. Vision is a senior leader's source of effectiveness. In a clausewitzian sense it is his "inner light." It can be an intuitive sensing, a precise mission, or a higher commander's intent fuller for a campaign or battle. Regardless, it is the reference point against which the senior leader measures progress. In fact, when properly formed, it provides its own capability to change or affirm its direction. Vision provides the capability to organize because it establishes focus for actions and guidance to the organization which will follow.
If the mind is to emerge unscathed form this relentless struggle with the unforeseen, two qualities are indispensable: first, an intellect that, even in the darkest hour, retains some glimmerings of the inner light which leads to truth; and second, the courage to follow this. Leadership is inherent in a military officer's function. It has been variously defined. A general accepted view is that leadership is the ability to inspire and direct a group of people to achieve an objective. Leadership is an art that can be scientifically studied and developed. Leadership in the military has often been a deciding factor in war. While going through the leadership traits, it might appear impossible to have a perfect military leader. Human nature by design is flawed. So, it will be futile to look for perfection.
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Ewert: " Global hot-spots of heat stress on agricultural crops due to climate change agricultural and Forest Meteorology (March 2013) divider Odgaard,.,. Svenning: " Climate and non-climatic drivers of spatiotemporal maize-area dynamics across the northern limit for maize production a case study from Denmark agriculture Ecosystems and Environment (August 2011) luo,.,. Wang: " Adaptation to climate change of wheat growing in south Australia: analysis of management and breeding strategies agriculture Ecosystems and Environment (January 2009) Krishnan,.,. Dash: " Impact aib of elevated CO2 and temperature on rice yield and methods of adaptation as evaluated by crop simulation studies agriculture Ecosystems and Environment (October 2007) About the ipcc the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (ipcc) was created in 1988 by the United Nations. In 2007, the ipcc was awarded the nobel peace Prize. Today its role is ".
To assess on a comprehensive, objective, open and transparent basis the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. Ipcc reports should be neutral with respect to policy, although they may need to deal objectively with scientific, technical and socio-economic factors relevant to the application of particular policies." Assessments are made in three working groups: Working Group I: The Science of Climate Change —. Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability — assessing impacts of climate change on socio-economic and natural systems and possibilities to deal with them via adaptation Working Group iii: Mitigation of Climate Change — dealing with mitigation options for limiting change via reducing greenhouse gas. Elaine van Ommen Kloeke ( @Elainevok ) obtained her PhD in soil mba ecology from the vu university Amsterdam, investigating the potential risks and effects of genetically modified crops on essential invertebrate species in the soil ecosystem. She joined Elsevier as Publisher of Agronomy and Remote sensing journals, working closely with experts in the field of agriculture and food security. Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015, introduction "During an operation decisions have usually to be made at once; there may be no time to review the situation or even to think it through.
Mauromoustakos: " Impact of field-scale nighttime air temperatures during kernel development on rice milling quality field Crops Research (June 2011) Brisson,.,. Huard: " Why are wheat yields stagnating in Europe? A comprehensive data analysis for France field Crops Research (October 2010) Shimono,.,. Sawano: " Can the cropping schedule of rice be adapted to changing climate? A case study in cool areas of northern Japan field Crops Research (August 2010) divider li,.,. Kaiser: " The impact of climate change on maize yields in the United States and China agricultural Systems (April 2011) Supit,.,.
Ludwig: " Recent changes in the climate yield potential of various crops in Europe agricultural Systems (november 2010) Thornton,. Herrero: " Adapting to climate change: agricultural system and household impacts in East Africa agricultural Systems (February 2010) divider Molden,.,. Kijne: " Improving agricultural water productivity: between optimism and caution agricultural Water Management (April 2010) Descheemaeker,.,. Haileslassie: " Improving water productivity in mixed croplivestock farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa agricultural Water Management (may 2010) liu,.,. Richey: " Crop yield responses to climate change in the huang-huai-hai plain of China agricultural Water Management (August 2010) divider Berg,.,. Guimberteau: " Projections of climate change impacts on potential C4 crop productivity over tropical regions agricultural and Forest Meteorology (March 2013) Osborne,. Wheeler: " Variation in the global-scale impacts of climate change on crop productivity due to climate model uncertainty and adaptation agricultural and Forest Meteorology (March 2013) Rosenzweig,.,. Winter: " The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (Agmip protocols and pilot studies agricultural and Forest Meteorology (March 2013) teixeira,.,.
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As a service and a thank you to the scientific community whose papers have been used in Chapter 7 of the ipcc report, Elsevier has made a selection of papers from the following journals freely available until may 31, 2015. Why farmers' sowing dates hardly change when temperature write rises european journal of Agronomy (July 2012 olesen,. Impacts and adaptation of European crop production systems to climate change european journal of Agronomy (February 2011 palosuo,.,. Simulation of winter wheat yields and yield variability in different climates of Europe. A comparison of eight crop growth models european journal of Agronomy (October 2011 rötter,. Carter: ". What would Happen to barley production in Finland if Global Warming Exceeded 4C? A model-Based Assessment european journal of Agronomy (november 2011) divider Ambardekar,.
The real work on the reports is done by unpaid scientific volunteers around the world, contributing as authors or reviewers. For instance, for AR5 Working Group ii alone, there were 308 authors from 70 countries and a total of 50,492 review comments. A large percentage ways of the relevant scientific community is thus involved as volunteers, spending valuable time creating these high-impact reports. The ipcc authors rely heavily on refereed scientific publications for their analysis. In this context, papers published by the major publishing houses are invaluable to the ipcc process. For instance, for Chapter 7, 557 scientific publications were used, including books, journal articles or reports. Of those sources, 70 (about 13 percent) came from agriculture and agronomy related journals published by Elsevier.
of the above mentioned possible effects of climate change on food and farming for 2030. The overview, for instance, shows which parts of the world will be affected by climate change and what the effects will likely be for their food and farming systems by 2030. Adaptations in the way we produce food, farm our lands and treat our environment will be key to mitigating the effects and ensuring food security. The results of the food security chapter may not be that alarming for most experts, according to some of the editors of Elsevier's Agronomy journals. However, it is still very important that meaningful adaptations to agricultural practices and attempts to limit emissions are made to ensure the risk posed by climate change on agriculture, and thus food security, is manageable. After just one week of its release, the food chapter was downloaded more than 25,000 times, and the wgii summary for Policymakers was downloaded more than 500,000 times. Worldwide scientific collaboration — and volunteers. The ipcc only has about a dozen full-time staff.
The report was developed by the ipcc's three working groups. Working Group ii focused on two very challenging and interrelated topics; agriculture and food security. Food security and food production systems details the current effects of climate change, the expected decline in crop production by 2030 as a result of climate change, and what farmers can do to mitigate some of the negative impacts. As stated writing by the chapter authors: "The questions for this chapter are how far climate and its change affect current food production systems and food security and the extent to which they will do so in the future.". A key conclusion of the authors is that climate challenge will increase the risk of reduced crop productivity associated with heat and drought stress. Negative impacts in average crop and pasture yield will likely be clearly visible by 2030. For example, in parts of Brazil, rice and wheat yields are could decline by 14, according to their forecast. To mitigate the effects, they recommend the following crop management adaptations: Cultivar adjustment (e.g., developing new crop varieties that are tolerant to drought, heat and salt via breeding or genetic modification). Planting date adjustment, combined planting date and cultivar adjustment.
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Global climate change influences all night aspects of our daily lives, and it will for many years to come. The challenge for each individual, institute, company and government is to not only identify the risks but also adapt and mitigate the effects to ensure a future for all on planet Earth. Although not all effects of climate change may turn out negative, most sectors will need to find ways to deal with the effects. Areas at high risk are agriculture and food security. To assess all aspects of climate change and its impact and formulate realistic strategies to mitigate these effects, the. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (ipcc) was founded in 1988. Last month, the ipcc released its 5th Assessment Report (AR5), which synthesizes and evaluates research related to impacts, adaptation and mitigation of climate change since the previous Assessment Reports. Food security and food production systems.